Statistical evaluation of the mechanical properties of high-volume class F fly ash concretes

Seyoon Yoon*, Paulo J. M. Monteiro, Donald E. Macphee, Fredrik P. Glasser, Mohammed Salah-Eldin Imbabi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Citations (Scopus)


High-Volume Fly Ash (HVFA) concretes are seen by many as a feasible solution for sustainable, low embodied carbon construction. At the moment, fly ash is classified as a waste by-product, primarily of thermal power stations. In this paper the authors experimentally and statistically investigated the effects of mix-design factors on the mechanical properties of high-volume class F fly ash concretes. A total of 240 and 32 samples were produced and tested in the laboratory to measure compressive strength and Young's modulus respectively. Applicability of the CEB-FIP (Comite Euro-international du Beton - Federation Internationale de la Precontrainte) and ACI (American Concrete Institute) Building Model Code (Thomas, 2010; ACI Committee 209, 1982) [1,2] to the experimentally-derived mechanical property data for HVFA concretes was established. Furthermore, using multiple linear regression analysis, Mean Squared Residuals (MSRs) were obtained to determine whether a weight- or volume-based mix proportion is better to predict the mechanical properties of HVFA concrete. The significance levels of the design factors, which indicate how significantly the factors affect the HVFA concrete's mechanical properties, were determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests. The results show that a weight-based mix proportion is a slightly better predictor of mechanical properties than volume-based one. The significance level of fly ash substitution rate was higher than that of w/b ratio initially but reduced over time. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)432-442
Number of pages11
JournalConstruction and building materials
Early online date23 Jan 2014
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2014


  • Fly ash
  • Concrete
  • Mix design
  • Compressive strength
  • Young's modulus
  • Statistical analysis
  • ANOVA test
  • self-compacting concrete
  • compressive strength
  • prediction
  • cement
  • model
  • size


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