Much has been written about implementation in the public sector, but little is known about organizational implementation styles and their consequences for performance. The authors' evidence shows that implementation style matters but only in combination with appropriate strategic choices. None of the established styles of implementation (rational, incremental, and "no clear approach") by themselves are likely to lead to better performance. However, when the authors incorporate the strategic orientation of the organization (defender, prospector, and reactor), they find that it has an important moderating effect on the relationship between implementation style and service performance. Their evidence suggests that public organizations need to achieve a fit between strategic orientation and style of implementation if higher levels of performance are to be attained.
- Miles and Snow