Stratigraphical framework of basaltic lavas in Torres Syncline main valley, southern Parana-Etendeka Volcanic Province

Lucas De Magalhaes Rossetti, Evandro Lima, Breno Waichel, Claiton Scherer, Carla Barreto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Parana-Etendeka Volcanic Province records the volcanism of the Early Cretaceous that precedes the fragmentation of the South-Gondwana supercontinent. Traditionally, investigations of these rocks prioritized the acquisition of geochemical and isotopic data, considering the volcanic stack as a
monotonous succession of tabular flows. Torres Syncline is a tectonic structure located in southern Brazil and where the Parana-Etendeka basalts are well preserved. This work provides a detailed analysis of lithofacies and facies architecture, integrated to petrographic and geochemical data. We identified seven distinct lithofacies grouped into four facies associations related to different flow morphologies. The basaltic lava flows in the area can be divided into two contrasting units: Unit I - pahoehoe flow fields; and Unit II - simple rubbly flows. The first unit is build up by innumerous pahoehoe lava flows that cover the sandstones of Botucatu Formation. These flows occur as sheet pahoehoe, compound pahoehoe, and ponded lavas morphologies. Compound lavas are olivine-phyric basalts with intergranular pyroxenes. In ponded lavas and cores of sheet flows coarse plagioclase-phyric basalts are common. The first pahoehoe lavas are more primitive with higher contents of MgO. The emplacement of compound pahoehoe flows is related to low volume eruptions, while sheet lavas were emplaced during sustained eruptions. In contrast, Unit II is formed by thick simple rubbly lavas, characterized by a massive core and a brecciated/rubbly top. Petrographically these flows are characterized by plagioclase-phyric to aphyric basalts with high density of plagioclase crystals in the matrix. Chemically they are more differentiated lavas, and the emplacement is related to sustained high effusion rate eruptions. Both units are low TiO2 and have geochemical characteristics of Gramado magma type. The Torres Syncline main valley has a similar evolution when compared to other Large Igneous Provinces, with compound flows at the base and simple flows in the upper portions. The detailed field work allied with petrography and geochemical data are extremely important to identify heterogeneities inside the volcanic pile and allows the construction of a detailed lithostratigraphical framework.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)409-421
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of South American Earth Sciences
Volume56
Early online date15 Oct 2014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2014

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syncline
pahoehoe
valley
basalt
plagioclase
volcanic eruption
lithofacies
lava flow
emplacement
large igneous province
sheet flow
province
tectonic structure
supercontinent
petrography
Gondwana
flow field
fieldwork
volcanism
olivine

Keywords

  • Continental Basaltic Provinces
  • Lava morphologies
  • Lava emplacement
  • SE Brazil

Cite this

Stratigraphical framework of basaltic lavas in Torres Syncline main valley, southern Parana-Etendeka Volcanic Province. / Rossetti, Lucas De Magalhaes; Lima, Evandro; Waichel, Breno; Scherer, Claiton; Barreto, Carla.

In: Journal of South American Earth Sciences, Vol. 56, 12.2014, p. 409-421.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Rossetti, Lucas De Magalhaes ; Lima, Evandro ; Waichel, Breno ; Scherer, Claiton ; Barreto, Carla. / Stratigraphical framework of basaltic lavas in Torres Syncline main valley, southern Parana-Etendeka Volcanic Province. In: Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 2014 ; Vol. 56. pp. 409-421.
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