Studies on the Use of Flagellin as an Immunostimulant and Vaccine Adjuvant in Fish Aquaculture

Tiehui Wang (Corresponding Author), Christopher J. Secombes

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Abstract

Immunostimulants and vaccines are important for controlling infectious diseases in fish aquaculture. In this study we assess the potential of flagellin to be used for such purposes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A recombinant flagellin from the salmonid pathogen Yersinia ruckeri (YRF) has been produced previously by us and shown to be a potent activator of inflammatory cytokines, acute phase proteins and antimicrobial peptides in vitro. Here we show that YRF is the most potent inflammatory activator of three bacterial PAMPs (LPS, peptidoglycan and flagellin) tested. The host response to flagellin was next studied in vivo. The YRF modulated gene expression was examined in two systemic (spleen and liver) and two mucosa-associated (gills and skin) tissues. YRF injection initiated a transient systemic inflammatory response with key pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6, and IL-11 etc.) and chemokines (CXCL_F4 and CXCL-8) induced rapidly (by 6 h) but subsiding quickly (by 24 h) in multiple tissues. Consequently, a variety of anti-microbial pathways were activated systemically with heightened expression of acute phase proteins, antimicrobial peptides and complement genes in multiple tissues, which was sustained to 24 h in the liver and mucosal tissues. The Th17 cytokine IL-17A/F1 was also induced in the spleen and liver, and Th2 cytokine IL-4/13 was induced in the liver. However, the anti-inflammatory IL-10 and the Th1 cytokine IFNγ were refractory. A secreted form of TLR5 (TLR5s) was induced by flagellin in all tissues examined whilst the membrane form was refractory, suggesting that TLR5s may function as a negative feedback regulator. Trout liver appeared to be an important organ responding to flagellin stimulation, with marked induction of IL-11, IL-23P19, IL-17C1, SAA, and cathelicidin-2. YRF induced a strong antibody response. These antibodies reacted against the middle domain of YRF and were able to decrease YRF bioactivity. Intact YRF was necessary for its bioactivity, as deletion of the N-terminal, C terminal or middle domain of YRF led to functional loss. This study suggests that flagellin could be a potent immunostimulant and vaccine adjuvant for fish aquaculture.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3054
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Volume9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 9 Jan 2019

Fingerprint

Flagellin
Immunologic Adjuvants
Aquaculture
Vaccines
Cytokines
Liver
Interleukin-11
Acute-Phase Proteins
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Yersinia ruckeri
Interleukin-23 Subunit p19
Fishes
Mucous Membrane
Spleen
Peptides
Interleukin-13
Interleukin-17
Peptidoglycan
Trout
Interleukin-1

Keywords

  • flagellin
  • Immunostimulant
  • vaccine adjuvant
  • salmonids
  • cytokine
  • antimicrobial peptides
  • gene expression
  • inflammatory response
  • Vaccine adjuvant
  • Cytokine
  • Flagellin
  • Inflammatory response
  • Gene expression
  • Antimicrobial peptides
  • Salmonids
  • IMMUNE-RESPONSE
  • immunostimulant
  • EXPRESSION ANALYSIS
  • BACTERIAL FLAGELLIN
  • EDWARDSIELLA-TARDA
  • TROUT ONCORHYNCHUS-MYKISS
  • ATLANTIC SALMON
  • DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION
  • FUNCTIONAL-CHARACTERIZATION
  • RECEPTOR 5
  • CYTOKINE FAMILY

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

Cite this

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abstract = "Immunostimulants and vaccines are important for controlling infectious diseases in fish aquaculture. In this study we assess the potential of flagellin to be used for such purposes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A recombinant flagellin from the salmonid pathogen Yersinia ruckeri (YRF) has been produced previously by us and shown to be a potent activator of inflammatory cytokines, acute phase proteins and antimicrobial peptides in vitro. Here we show that YRF is the most potent inflammatory activator of three bacterial PAMPs (LPS, peptidoglycan and flagellin) tested. The host response to flagellin was next studied in vivo. The YRF modulated gene expression was examined in two systemic (spleen and liver) and two mucosa-associated (gills and skin) tissues. YRF injection initiated a transient systemic inflammatory response with key pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6, and IL-11 etc.) and chemokines (CXCL_F4 and CXCL-8) induced rapidly (by 6 h) but subsiding quickly (by 24 h) in multiple tissues. Consequently, a variety of anti-microbial pathways were activated systemically with heightened expression of acute phase proteins, antimicrobial peptides and complement genes in multiple tissues, which was sustained to 24 h in the liver and mucosal tissues. The Th17 cytokine IL-17A/F1 was also induced in the spleen and liver, and Th2 cytokine IL-4/13 was induced in the liver. However, the anti-inflammatory IL-10 and the Th1 cytokine IFNγ were refractory. A secreted form of TLR5 (TLR5s) was induced by flagellin in all tissues examined whilst the membrane form was refractory, suggesting that TLR5s may function as a negative feedback regulator. Trout liver appeared to be an important organ responding to flagellin stimulation, with marked induction of IL-11, IL-23P19, IL-17C1, SAA, and cathelicidin-2. YRF induced a strong antibody response. These antibodies reacted against the middle domain of YRF and were able to decrease YRF bioactivity. Intact YRF was necessary for its bioactivity, as deletion of the N-terminal, C terminal or middle domain of YRF led to functional loss. This study suggests that flagellin could be a potent immunostimulant and vaccine adjuvant for fish aquaculture.",
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note = "EW was supported by a Ph.D. studentship from the Ministry of Science and Technology of Thailand and Mahasarakham University. TW received funding from the MASTS pooling initiative (The Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland), that is funded by the Scottish Funding Council (grant reference HR09011). This research was also funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP7) of the European Union (grant agreement No. 311993 TARGETFISH). The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.03054/full#supplementary-material",
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T1 - Studies on the Use of Flagellin as an Immunostimulant and Vaccine Adjuvant in Fish Aquaculture

AU - Wang, Tiehui

AU - Secombes, Christopher J.

N1 - EW was supported by a Ph.D. studentship from the Ministry of Science and Technology of Thailand and Mahasarakham University. TW received funding from the MASTS pooling initiative (The Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland), that is funded by the Scottish Funding Council (grant reference HR09011). This research was also funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP7) of the European Union (grant agreement No. 311993 TARGETFISH). The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2018.03054/full#supplementary-material

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N2 - Immunostimulants and vaccines are important for controlling infectious diseases in fish aquaculture. In this study we assess the potential of flagellin to be used for such purposes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A recombinant flagellin from the salmonid pathogen Yersinia ruckeri (YRF) has been produced previously by us and shown to be a potent activator of inflammatory cytokines, acute phase proteins and antimicrobial peptides in vitro. Here we show that YRF is the most potent inflammatory activator of three bacterial PAMPs (LPS, peptidoglycan and flagellin) tested. The host response to flagellin was next studied in vivo. The YRF modulated gene expression was examined in two systemic (spleen and liver) and two mucosa-associated (gills and skin) tissues. YRF injection initiated a transient systemic inflammatory response with key pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6, and IL-11 etc.) and chemokines (CXCL_F4 and CXCL-8) induced rapidly (by 6 h) but subsiding quickly (by 24 h) in multiple tissues. Consequently, a variety of anti-microbial pathways were activated systemically with heightened expression of acute phase proteins, antimicrobial peptides and complement genes in multiple tissues, which was sustained to 24 h in the liver and mucosal tissues. The Th17 cytokine IL-17A/F1 was also induced in the spleen and liver, and Th2 cytokine IL-4/13 was induced in the liver. However, the anti-inflammatory IL-10 and the Th1 cytokine IFNγ were refractory. A secreted form of TLR5 (TLR5s) was induced by flagellin in all tissues examined whilst the membrane form was refractory, suggesting that TLR5s may function as a negative feedback regulator. Trout liver appeared to be an important organ responding to flagellin stimulation, with marked induction of IL-11, IL-23P19, IL-17C1, SAA, and cathelicidin-2. YRF induced a strong antibody response. These antibodies reacted against the middle domain of YRF and were able to decrease YRF bioactivity. Intact YRF was necessary for its bioactivity, as deletion of the N-terminal, C terminal or middle domain of YRF led to functional loss. This study suggests that flagellin could be a potent immunostimulant and vaccine adjuvant for fish aquaculture.

AB - Immunostimulants and vaccines are important for controlling infectious diseases in fish aquaculture. In this study we assess the potential of flagellin to be used for such purposes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A recombinant flagellin from the salmonid pathogen Yersinia ruckeri (YRF) has been produced previously by us and shown to be a potent activator of inflammatory cytokines, acute phase proteins and antimicrobial peptides in vitro. Here we show that YRF is the most potent inflammatory activator of three bacterial PAMPs (LPS, peptidoglycan and flagellin) tested. The host response to flagellin was next studied in vivo. The YRF modulated gene expression was examined in two systemic (spleen and liver) and two mucosa-associated (gills and skin) tissues. YRF injection initiated a transient systemic inflammatory response with key pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6, and IL-11 etc.) and chemokines (CXCL_F4 and CXCL-8) induced rapidly (by 6 h) but subsiding quickly (by 24 h) in multiple tissues. Consequently, a variety of anti-microbial pathways were activated systemically with heightened expression of acute phase proteins, antimicrobial peptides and complement genes in multiple tissues, which was sustained to 24 h in the liver and mucosal tissues. The Th17 cytokine IL-17A/F1 was also induced in the spleen and liver, and Th2 cytokine IL-4/13 was induced in the liver. However, the anti-inflammatory IL-10 and the Th1 cytokine IFNγ were refractory. A secreted form of TLR5 (TLR5s) was induced by flagellin in all tissues examined whilst the membrane form was refractory, suggesting that TLR5s may function as a negative feedback regulator. Trout liver appeared to be an important organ responding to flagellin stimulation, with marked induction of IL-11, IL-23P19, IL-17C1, SAA, and cathelicidin-2. YRF induced a strong antibody response. These antibodies reacted against the middle domain of YRF and were able to decrease YRF bioactivity. Intact YRF was necessary for its bioactivity, as deletion of the N-terminal, C terminal or middle domain of YRF led to functional loss. This study suggests that flagellin could be a potent immunostimulant and vaccine adjuvant for fish aquaculture.

KW - flagellin

KW - Immunostimulant

KW - vaccine adjuvant

KW - salmonids

KW - cytokine

KW - antimicrobial peptides

KW - gene expression

KW - inflammatory response

KW - Vaccine adjuvant

KW - Cytokine

KW - Flagellin

KW - Inflammatory response

KW - Gene expression

KW - Antimicrobial peptides

KW - Salmonids

KW - IMMUNE-RESPONSE

KW - immunostimulant

KW - EXPRESSION ANALYSIS

KW - BACTERIAL FLAGELLIN

KW - EDWARDSIELLA-TARDA

KW - TROUT ONCORHYNCHUS-MYKISS

KW - ATLANTIC SALMON

KW - DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSION

KW - FUNCTIONAL-CHARACTERIZATION

KW - RECEPTOR 5

KW - CYTOKINE FAMILY

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