Styles of basal interaction beneath mass transport deposits

Matheus S. Sobiesiak (Corresponding Author), Benjamin Charles Kneller, G. Ian Alsop, Juan Pablo Milana

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Abstract

Erosion of the seafloor is often interpreted to be the result of turbidity currents and reflects their frictional and non-cohesive nature. However, evidence of the interaction between sediment gravity-flows and the substrate forming the sea floor has been increasingly reported in the literature. Based on styles of basal interaction with the substrate, we here propose a broad classification of submarine mass movements labelled free- and no-slip flows. Three mechanisms are proposed for free-slip flows during translation of mass movements that are effectively detached from the substrate; hydroplaning, shear wetting, and substrate liquefaction. In contrast, no-slip flows occur where the mass movement is welded to the substrate, and the strain front lies within the substrate itself. In the latter case, flows can erode by pushing forward and/or ploughing into the substrate, often remobilizing sediments that are later incorporated into the flow, a common characteristic shared by many mass transport deposits (MTDs) containing blocks. Additionally, linear track features (e.g. grooves and striations) are described as a consequence of substrate tooling by rigid blocks. Using outcrops in NW Argentina as a detailed case study, we have recorded evidence for penetration of the strain profile into sediments underlying MTDs and categorised the deformation into no-slip basal deformation that may display continuous and discontinuous profiles. Continuous deformation profiles involve the complete deformation of the uppermost layers of the substrate, while discontinuous deformation profiles preserve a undeformed substrate layer between the MTD and the zone of deformed substrate. These features highlight the erosive and deformational nature of MTDs, and can be used as potential kinematic indicators.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)629-639
Number of pages11
JournalMarine and Petroleum Geology
Volume98
Early online date24 Aug 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2018

Fingerprint

mass transport
deposits
substrate
slip flow
interactions
mass movement
sediments
profiles
hydroplaning
seafloor
plowing
sediment
tooling
liquefaction
striation
Argentina
pushing
gravity flow
outcrops
turbidity

Keywords

  • mass-transport deposits
  • substrate deformation
  • substrate erosion
  • liquefaction
  • hydroplaning
  • no-slip flows
  • free-slip flows

Cite this

Styles of basal interaction beneath mass transport deposits. / Sobiesiak, Matheus S. (Corresponding Author); Kneller, Benjamin Charles; Alsop, G. Ian; Milana, Juan Pablo.

In: Marine and Petroleum Geology, Vol. 98, 12.2018, p. 629-639.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Erosion of the seafloor is often interpreted to be the result of turbidity currents and reflects their frictional and non-cohesive nature. However, evidence of the interaction between sediment gravity-flows and the substrate forming the sea floor has been increasingly reported in the literature. Based on styles of basal interaction with the substrate, we here propose a broad classification of submarine mass movements labelled free- and no-slip flows. Three mechanisms are proposed for free-slip flows during translation of mass movements that are effectively detached from the substrate; hydroplaning, shear wetting, and substrate liquefaction. In contrast, no-slip flows occur where the mass movement is welded to the substrate, and the strain front lies within the substrate itself. In the latter case, flows can erode by pushing forward and/or ploughing into the substrate, often remobilizing sediments that are later incorporated into the flow, a common characteristic shared by many mass transport deposits (MTDs) containing blocks. Additionally, linear track features (e.g. grooves and striations) are described as a consequence of substrate tooling by rigid blocks. Using outcrops in NW Argentina as a detailed case study, we have recorded evidence for penetration of the strain profile into sediments underlying MTDs and categorised the deformation into no-slip basal deformation that may display continuous and discontinuous profiles. Continuous deformation profiles involve the complete deformation of the uppermost layers of the substrate, while discontinuous deformation profiles preserve a undeformed substrate layer between the MTD and the zone of deformed substrate. These features highlight the erosive and deformational nature of MTDs, and can be used as potential kinematic indicators.",
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note = "We acknowledge the support of CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cient{\'i}fico e Tecnol{\'o}gico) - Brazil, Shell and the University of Aberdeen. The authors would like to thank GCSSEPM and SEPM for permission to publish some of their published figures and to all authors whose works were cited here as case studies.We would like to thank the following colleagues for their support, camaraderie and countless hours of fieldwork: Claus Fallgatter, Victoria Valdez, Carla Puigdomenech, Guilherme Bozetti, Roberto Noll Filho, Arthur Lemos Giovannini, Qun Liu, Thisiane dos Santos, Pan Li, Amanda Santa Catarina, Ramon Lopez Jimenez and Larissa Hansen. Last but not least, we thank Lorena Moscardelli and Kei Ogata for their insightful reviews that improved this manuscript",
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N2 - Erosion of the seafloor is often interpreted to be the result of turbidity currents and reflects their frictional and non-cohesive nature. However, evidence of the interaction between sediment gravity-flows and the substrate forming the sea floor has been increasingly reported in the literature. Based on styles of basal interaction with the substrate, we here propose a broad classification of submarine mass movements labelled free- and no-slip flows. Three mechanisms are proposed for free-slip flows during translation of mass movements that are effectively detached from the substrate; hydroplaning, shear wetting, and substrate liquefaction. In contrast, no-slip flows occur where the mass movement is welded to the substrate, and the strain front lies within the substrate itself. In the latter case, flows can erode by pushing forward and/or ploughing into the substrate, often remobilizing sediments that are later incorporated into the flow, a common characteristic shared by many mass transport deposits (MTDs) containing blocks. Additionally, linear track features (e.g. grooves and striations) are described as a consequence of substrate tooling by rigid blocks. Using outcrops in NW Argentina as a detailed case study, we have recorded evidence for penetration of the strain profile into sediments underlying MTDs and categorised the deformation into no-slip basal deformation that may display continuous and discontinuous profiles. Continuous deformation profiles involve the complete deformation of the uppermost layers of the substrate, while discontinuous deformation profiles preserve a undeformed substrate layer between the MTD and the zone of deformed substrate. These features highlight the erosive and deformational nature of MTDs, and can be used as potential kinematic indicators.

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KW - mass-transport deposits

KW - substrate deformation

KW - substrate erosion

KW - liquefaction

KW - hydroplaning

KW - no-slip flows

KW - free-slip flows

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DO - 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2018.08.028

M3 - Article

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EP - 639

JO - Marine and Petroleum Geology

JF - Marine and Petroleum Geology

SN - 0264-8172

ER -