The effects of artificial reproductive techniques and subfertility on cardiovascular and metabolic profiles of children aged 5-6 years were investigated using data from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study. Of the 2577 children, 34 were conceived through ovulation induction, 51 through artificial insemination and 28 through IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Two hundred and twenty children were born to couples who conceived after more than 12 months and 2244 were born to couples who conceived within 12 months of unprotected intercourse ('subfertile' and 'fertile', respectively). At the age of 5-6 years, fasting glucose levels were higher among children conceived through ovulation induction and IVF-ICSI compared with those of children of fertile couples (adjusted difference: ovulation induction: 0.4 mmol/l, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.6; IVF-ICSI: 0.2 mmol/l, 95% CI 0.0 to 0.5). Blood pressure was higher in children of subfertile couples compared with that of children of fertile couples (adjusted difference systolic blood pressure: 0.8 mmHg, 95% CI -0.2 to 1.8; diastolic blood pressure: 1.4 mmHg, 95% CI 0.6 to 2.3). Subfertility and conception through ovulation induction and IVF-ICSI each contributed to aspects of an adverse cardiovascular and metabolic profile in childhood.
- artificial insemination
- cardiovascular risk offspring
- ovulation induction