Two feeding experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of partial substitution of fish meal (FM) with raw or heat-treated cowpea Vigna unguiculata L. Walp var. IT86-D719 seeds on growth performance, digestibility and pancreas tissue in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fry. Experiment 1 involved six isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets: four containing different concentrations of raw, whole cowpea meal (protein basis), a positive control with FM as sole protein source and a negative with cowpea meal as sole protein source. Substitution at up to 200 g kg-1 had no significant effect on production parameters, although growth was negatively affected in the negative control because of seed antinutritional factor content. Experiment 2 evaluated the effect of heat treatment (oven drying at 48 °C; hot air drying at 70 °C; or autoclaving at 119 °C) and/or seed dehulling using diets containing 200 g kg-1 cowpea meal presoaked in water. Only autoclaving eliminated trypsin inhibitor and lectin contents, independent of dehulling. Histological analysis indicated no histological changes in pancreas tissue. Raw or treated cowpea meal can replace FM in tilapia fingerling diets at up to 200 g kg-1 protein content without significantly affecting productive parameters or pancreas tissue.
- heat treatment
- legume seeds
- trypsin inhibitors
Olivera-Castillo, L., Pino-Aguilar, M., Lara-Flores, M., Granados-Puerto, S., Montero-Munoz, J., Olvera-Novoa, M. A., & Grant, G. (2011). Substitution of fish meal with raw or treated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L Walp, IT86-D719) meal in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fry. Aquaculture Nutrition, 17(2), e101-e111. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2095.2009.00739.x