Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum

Appy Sluijs*, Stefan Schouten, Mark Pagani, Martijn Woltering, Henk Brinkhuis, Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté, Gerald R. Dickens, Matthew Huber, Gert Jan Reichart, Ruediger Stein, Jens Matthiessen, Lucas J. Lourens, Nikolai Pedentchouk, Jan Backman, Kathryn Moran, Steve Clemens, Thomas Cronin, Frédérique Eynaud, Jérôme Gattacceca, Martin JakobssonRic Jordan, Michael Kaminski, John King, Nalân Koc, Nahysa C. Martinez, David McInroy, Theodore C. Moore, Matthew O'Regan, Jonaotaro Onodera, Heiko Pälike, Brice Rea, Domenico Rio, Tatsuhiko Sakamoto, David C. Smith, Kristen E K St John, Itsuki Suto, Noritoshi Suzuki, Kozo Takahashi, Mahito Watanabe, Masanobu Yamamoto

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

446 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum, ∼55 million years ago, was a brief period of widespread, extreme climatic warming, that was associated with massive atmospheric greenhouse gas input. Although aspects of the resulting environmental changes are well documented at low latitudes, no data were available to quantify simultaneous changes in the Arctic region. Here we identify the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum in a marine sedimentary sequence obtained during the Arctic Coring Expedition. We show that sea surface temperatures near the North Pole increased from ∼18°C to over 23°C during this event. Such warm values imply the absence of ice and thus exclude the influence of ice-albedo feedbacks on this Arctic warming. At the same time, sea level rose while anoxic and euxinic conditions developed in the ocean's bottom waters and photic zone, respectively. Increasing temperature and sea level match expectations based on palaeoclimate model simulations, but the absolute polar temperatures that we derive before, during and after the event are more than 10°C warmer than those model-predicted. This suggests that higher-than-modern greenhouse gas concentrations must have operated in conjunction with other feedback mechanisms-perhaps polar stratospheric clouds or hurricane-induced ocean mixing-to amplify early Palaeogene polar temperatures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)610-613
Number of pages4
JournalNature
Volume441
Issue number7093
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2006

Fingerprint

Oceans and Seas
Hot Temperature
Temperature
Ice
Arctic Regions
Gases
Expeditions
Cyclonic Storms
Water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Sluijs, A., Schouten, S., Pagani, M., Woltering, M., Brinkhuis, H., Damsté, J. S. S., ... Yamamoto, M. (2006). Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum. Nature, 441(7093), 610-613. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04668

Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum. / Sluijs, Appy; Schouten, Stefan; Pagani, Mark; Woltering, Martijn; Brinkhuis, Henk; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Dickens, Gerald R.; Huber, Matthew; Reichart, Gert Jan; Stein, Ruediger; Matthiessen, Jens; Lourens, Lucas J.; Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Backman, Jan; Moran, Kathryn; Clemens, Steve; Cronin, Thomas; Eynaud, Frédérique; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Jakobsson, Martin; Jordan, Ric; Kaminski, Michael; King, John; Koc, Nalân; Martinez, Nahysa C.; McInroy, David; Moore, Theodore C.; O'Regan, Matthew; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Pälike, Heiko; Rea, Brice; Rio, Domenico; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Smith, David C.; St John, Kristen E K; Suto, Itsuki; Suzuki, Noritoshi; Takahashi, Kozo; Watanabe, Mahito; Yamamoto, Masanobu.

In: Nature, Vol. 441, No. 7093, 01.06.2006, p. 610-613.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sluijs, A, Schouten, S, Pagani, M, Woltering, M, Brinkhuis, H, Damsté, JSS, Dickens, GR, Huber, M, Reichart, GJ, Stein, R, Matthiessen, J, Lourens, LJ, Pedentchouk, N, Backman, J, Moran, K, Clemens, S, Cronin, T, Eynaud, F, Gattacceca, J, Jakobsson, M, Jordan, R, Kaminski, M, King, J, Koc, N, Martinez, NC, McInroy, D, Moore, TC, O'Regan, M, Onodera, J, Pälike, H, Rea, B, Rio, D, Sakamoto, T, Smith, DC, St John, KEK, Suto, I, Suzuki, N, Takahashi, K, Watanabe, M & Yamamoto, M 2006, 'Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum', Nature, vol. 441, no. 7093, pp. 610-613. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04668
Sluijs A, Schouten S, Pagani M, Woltering M, Brinkhuis H, Damsté JSS et al. Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum. Nature. 2006 Jun 1;441(7093):610-613. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04668
Sluijs, Appy ; Schouten, Stefan ; Pagani, Mark ; Woltering, Martijn ; Brinkhuis, Henk ; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe ; Dickens, Gerald R. ; Huber, Matthew ; Reichart, Gert Jan ; Stein, Ruediger ; Matthiessen, Jens ; Lourens, Lucas J. ; Pedentchouk, Nikolai ; Backman, Jan ; Moran, Kathryn ; Clemens, Steve ; Cronin, Thomas ; Eynaud, Frédérique ; Gattacceca, Jérôme ; Jakobsson, Martin ; Jordan, Ric ; Kaminski, Michael ; King, John ; Koc, Nalân ; Martinez, Nahysa C. ; McInroy, David ; Moore, Theodore C. ; O'Regan, Matthew ; Onodera, Jonaotaro ; Pälike, Heiko ; Rea, Brice ; Rio, Domenico ; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko ; Smith, David C. ; St John, Kristen E K ; Suto, Itsuki ; Suzuki, Noritoshi ; Takahashi, Kozo ; Watanabe, Mahito ; Yamamoto, Masanobu. / Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum. In: Nature. 2006 ; Vol. 441, No. 7093. pp. 610-613.
@article{7b8fb264c5fc4fcf9944d41b542a45df,
title = "Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum",
abstract = "The Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum, ∼55 million years ago, was a brief period of widespread, extreme climatic warming, that was associated with massive atmospheric greenhouse gas input. Although aspects of the resulting environmental changes are well documented at low latitudes, no data were available to quantify simultaneous changes in the Arctic region. Here we identify the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum in a marine sedimentary sequence obtained during the Arctic Coring Expedition. We show that sea surface temperatures near the North Pole increased from ∼18°C to over 23°C during this event. Such warm values imply the absence of ice and thus exclude the influence of ice-albedo feedbacks on this Arctic warming. At the same time, sea level rose while anoxic and euxinic conditions developed in the ocean's bottom waters and photic zone, respectively. Increasing temperature and sea level match expectations based on palaeoclimate model simulations, but the absolute polar temperatures that we derive before, during and after the event are more than 10°C warmer than those model-predicted. This suggests that higher-than-modern greenhouse gas concentrations must have operated in conjunction with other feedback mechanisms-perhaps polar stratospheric clouds or hurricane-induced ocean mixing-to amplify early Palaeogene polar temperatures.",
author = "Appy Sluijs and Stefan Schouten and Mark Pagani and Martijn Woltering and Henk Brinkhuis and Damst{\'e}, {Jaap S Sinninghe} and Dickens, {Gerald R.} and Matthew Huber and Reichart, {Gert Jan} and Ruediger Stein and Jens Matthiessen and Lourens, {Lucas J.} and Nikolai Pedentchouk and Jan Backman and Kathryn Moran and Steve Clemens and Thomas Cronin and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}rique Eynaud and J{\'e}r{\^o}me Gattacceca and Martin Jakobsson and Ric Jordan and Michael Kaminski and John King and Nal{\^a}n Koc and Martinez, {Nahysa C.} and David McInroy and Moore, {Theodore C.} and Matthew O'Regan and Jonaotaro Onodera and Heiko P{\"a}like and Brice Rea and Domenico Rio and Tatsuhiko Sakamoto and Smith, {David C.} and {St John}, {Kristen E K} and Itsuki Suto and Noritoshi Suzuki and Kozo Takahashi and Mahito Watanabe and Masanobu Yamamoto",
year = "2006",
month = "6",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1038/nature04668",
language = "English",
volume = "441",
pages = "610--613",
journal = "Nature",
issn = "0028-0836",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "7093",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Subtropical Arctic Ocean temperatures during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum

AU - Sluijs, Appy

AU - Schouten, Stefan

AU - Pagani, Mark

AU - Woltering, Martijn

AU - Brinkhuis, Henk

AU - Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe

AU - Dickens, Gerald R.

AU - Huber, Matthew

AU - Reichart, Gert Jan

AU - Stein, Ruediger

AU - Matthiessen, Jens

AU - Lourens, Lucas J.

AU - Pedentchouk, Nikolai

AU - Backman, Jan

AU - Moran, Kathryn

AU - Clemens, Steve

AU - Cronin, Thomas

AU - Eynaud, Frédérique

AU - Gattacceca, Jérôme

AU - Jakobsson, Martin

AU - Jordan, Ric

AU - Kaminski, Michael

AU - King, John

AU - Koc, Nalân

AU - Martinez, Nahysa C.

AU - McInroy, David

AU - Moore, Theodore C.

AU - O'Regan, Matthew

AU - Onodera, Jonaotaro

AU - Pälike, Heiko

AU - Rea, Brice

AU - Rio, Domenico

AU - Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko

AU - Smith, David C.

AU - St John, Kristen E K

AU - Suto, Itsuki

AU - Suzuki, Noritoshi

AU - Takahashi, Kozo

AU - Watanabe, Mahito

AU - Yamamoto, Masanobu

PY - 2006/6/1

Y1 - 2006/6/1

N2 - The Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum, ∼55 million years ago, was a brief period of widespread, extreme climatic warming, that was associated with massive atmospheric greenhouse gas input. Although aspects of the resulting environmental changes are well documented at low latitudes, no data were available to quantify simultaneous changes in the Arctic region. Here we identify the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum in a marine sedimentary sequence obtained during the Arctic Coring Expedition. We show that sea surface temperatures near the North Pole increased from ∼18°C to over 23°C during this event. Such warm values imply the absence of ice and thus exclude the influence of ice-albedo feedbacks on this Arctic warming. At the same time, sea level rose while anoxic and euxinic conditions developed in the ocean's bottom waters and photic zone, respectively. Increasing temperature and sea level match expectations based on palaeoclimate model simulations, but the absolute polar temperatures that we derive before, during and after the event are more than 10°C warmer than those model-predicted. This suggests that higher-than-modern greenhouse gas concentrations must have operated in conjunction with other feedback mechanisms-perhaps polar stratospheric clouds or hurricane-induced ocean mixing-to amplify early Palaeogene polar temperatures.

AB - The Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum, ∼55 million years ago, was a brief period of widespread, extreme climatic warming, that was associated with massive atmospheric greenhouse gas input. Although aspects of the resulting environmental changes are well documented at low latitudes, no data were available to quantify simultaneous changes in the Arctic region. Here we identify the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum in a marine sedimentary sequence obtained during the Arctic Coring Expedition. We show that sea surface temperatures near the North Pole increased from ∼18°C to over 23°C during this event. Such warm values imply the absence of ice and thus exclude the influence of ice-albedo feedbacks on this Arctic warming. At the same time, sea level rose while anoxic and euxinic conditions developed in the ocean's bottom waters and photic zone, respectively. Increasing temperature and sea level match expectations based on palaeoclimate model simulations, but the absolute polar temperatures that we derive before, during and after the event are more than 10°C warmer than those model-predicted. This suggests that higher-than-modern greenhouse gas concentrations must have operated in conjunction with other feedback mechanisms-perhaps polar stratospheric clouds or hurricane-induced ocean mixing-to amplify early Palaeogene polar temperatures.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33745272227&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/nature04668

DO - 10.1038/nature04668

M3 - Article

C2 - 16752441

AN - SCOPUS:33745272227

VL - 441

SP - 610

EP - 613

JO - Nature

JF - Nature

SN - 0028-0836

IS - 7093

ER -