Successful Pregnancy Following Nonsurgical Embryo Transfer in Llamas

D Bourke, Clare Lesley Adam, C E Kyle

Research output: Contribution to journalLetterpeer-review


The establishment of pregnancies in two llamas using non-surgical embryo recovery and transfer techniques is reported. The following procedure was used for embryo recovery from the llamas, eight days after mating. A two-way balloon cuff catheter was manipulated through the cervical canal per vaginam and the cuff inflated just anterior to the internal os of the cervix. Using a three-way tap, proprietary ovum culture media was introduced in small aliquots and once uterine expansion was achieved, medium was allowed to drain back into collecting vessels. This was repeated until a total of 500 ml of medium had been used. The recovered medium was filtered using a 75 µm embryo filter and the remaining supernatant was decanted into embryo dishes and examined under a stereomicroscope. Both recipients were confirmed pregnant by transrectal ultrasound scanning. Embryonic vesicles were identified on day 25 (ovulation=day 0; embryo transfer=day 7). The embryo proper and heart beat were detected on day 32. Although two embryos had been transferred to one of the recipients, only one conceptus was subsequently identified by ultrasound scanning. Both recipients were monitored by regular ultrasound scanning and at the time of writing were 153 days pregnant. Gestational length in llamas is approximately 340 to 355 days.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)580-580
Number of pages1
JournalVeterinary Record
Issue number23
Publication statusPublished - 8 Dec 1990


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