Sudden death of Theobroma cacao L. caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb. in Peru and its in vitro biocontrol

Betsabe Leon-Ttacca, Enrique Arévalo-Gardini, Anne Sophie -Bouchon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In the Atusparia sector, Tocache, of the San Martín region in Peru, two-year-old plants of Theobroma cacao L. (Malvaceae) of the CCN-51 clone showed for the first time in January 2010, symptoms of leaf yellowing, wilt and dieback, with an internal obstruction of the vascular system of the plant. To isolate the fungus, diseased tissues were cultured in Petri dishes containing potato dextrose agar oxytetracycline, and the identification was based on morphological and microscopic analyses and by the Sanger sequencing. Pathogenicity tests were carried out on three-months-old T. cacao ICS-1 clone plants and were inoculated with a conidia suspension of 1x107 cfu/mL employing two inoculation methods (Drench to the soil and stem puncture). Likewise, the antagonistic capacity (mycoparasitism and antibiosis) was established in vitro with endophytic Trichoderma isolates on the pathogen. With both inoculation methods symptoms of wilt of different degrees of severity were observed and the causal agent of sudden death in T. cacao was confirmed to be the fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb. blast sequence analysis revealed that the isolate showed 100 % homology with V. dahliae sequences in GenBank. Trichoderma TE-91 was identified as the most aggressive mycoparasite because its metabolites inhibited completely the mycelial growth of the pathogen
Original languageEnglish
Article number1251
JournalCiencia y Tecnología Agropecuaria
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jan 2019

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Theobroma cacao
Verticillium dahliae
Peru
inoculation methods
biological control
Trichoderma
death
signs and symptoms (plants)
clones
mycoparasites
plant vascular system
fungi
antibiosis
pathogens
Malvaceae
dieback
oxytetracycline
conidia
pathogenicity
sequence analysis

Keywords

  • biological control
  • endophyte, wilt
  • Trichoderma

Cite this

Sudden death of Theobroma cacao L. caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb. in Peru and its in vitro biocontrol. / Leon-Ttacca, Betsabe; Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique; -Bouchon, Anne Sophie.

In: Ciencia y Tecnología Agropecuaria, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1251, 14.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Leon-Ttacca, Betsabe ; Arévalo-Gardini, Enrique ; -Bouchon, Anne Sophie. / Sudden death of Theobroma cacao L. caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb. in Peru and its in vitro biocontrol. In: Ciencia y Tecnología Agropecuaria. 2019 ; Vol. 20, No. 1.
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