Sustainable diets for the future

can we contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by eating a healthy diet?

Jennie I Macdiarmid, Janet Kyle, Graham W Horgan, Jennifer Loe, Claire Fyfe, Alexandra Johnstone, Geraldine McNeill

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

187 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Food systems account for 18-20% of UK annual greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs). Recommendations for improving food choices to reduce GHGEs must be balanced against dietary requirements for health.

Objective: We assessed whether a reduction in GHGEs can be achieved while meeting dietary requirements for health.

Design: A database was created that linked nutrient composition and GHGE data for 82 food groups. Linear programming was used iteratively to produce a diet that met the dietary requirements of an adult woman (19-50 y old) while minimizing GHGEs. Acceptability constraints were added to the model to include foods commonly consumed in the United Kingdom in sensible quantities. A sample menu was created to ensure that the quantities and types of food generated from the model could be combined into a realistic 7-d diet. Reductions in GHGEs of the diets were set against 1990 emission values.

Results: The first model, without any acceptability constraints, produced a 90% reduction in GHGEs but included only 7 food items, all in unrealistic quantities. The addition of acceptability constraints gave a more realistic diet with 52 foods but reduced GHGEs by a lesser amount of 36%. This diet included meat products but in smaller amounts than in the current diet. The retail cost of the diet was comparable to the average UK expenditure on food.

Conclusion: A sustainable diet that meets dietary requirements for health with lower GHGEs can be achieved without eliminating meat or dairy products or increasing the cost to the consumer. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;96:632-9.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)632-639
Number of pages8
JournalThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume96
Issue number3
Early online date1 Aug 2012
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2012

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Eating
Gases
Diet
Food
Nutritional Requirements
Meat Products
Health
Linear Programming
Healthy Diet
Costs and Cost Analysis
Dairy Products
Health Expenditures
Databases

Cite this

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title = "Sustainable diets for the future: can we contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by eating a healthy diet?",
abstract = "Background: Food systems account for 18-20{\%} of UK annual greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs). Recommendations for improving food choices to reduce GHGEs must be balanced against dietary requirements for health.Objective: We assessed whether a reduction in GHGEs can be achieved while meeting dietary requirements for health.Design: A database was created that linked nutrient composition and GHGE data for 82 food groups. Linear programming was used iteratively to produce a diet that met the dietary requirements of an adult woman (19-50 y old) while minimizing GHGEs. Acceptability constraints were added to the model to include foods commonly consumed in the United Kingdom in sensible quantities. A sample menu was created to ensure that the quantities and types of food generated from the model could be combined into a realistic 7-d diet. Reductions in GHGEs of the diets were set against 1990 emission values.Results: The first model, without any acceptability constraints, produced a 90{\%} reduction in GHGEs but included only 7 food items, all in unrealistic quantities. The addition of acceptability constraints gave a more realistic diet with 52 foods but reduced GHGEs by a lesser amount of 36{\%}. This diet included meat products but in smaller amounts than in the current diet. The retail cost of the diet was comparable to the average UK expenditure on food.Conclusion: A sustainable diet that meets dietary requirements for health with lower GHGEs can be achieved without eliminating meat or dairy products or increasing the cost to the consumer. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;96:632-9.",
author = "Macdiarmid, {Jennie I} and Janet Kyle and Horgan, {Graham W} and Jennifer Loe and Claire Fyfe and Alexandra Johnstone and Geraldine McNeill",
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AU - Johnstone, Alexandra

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N2 - Background: Food systems account for 18-20% of UK annual greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs). Recommendations for improving food choices to reduce GHGEs must be balanced against dietary requirements for health.Objective: We assessed whether a reduction in GHGEs can be achieved while meeting dietary requirements for health.Design: A database was created that linked nutrient composition and GHGE data for 82 food groups. Linear programming was used iteratively to produce a diet that met the dietary requirements of an adult woman (19-50 y old) while minimizing GHGEs. Acceptability constraints were added to the model to include foods commonly consumed in the United Kingdom in sensible quantities. A sample menu was created to ensure that the quantities and types of food generated from the model could be combined into a realistic 7-d diet. Reductions in GHGEs of the diets were set against 1990 emission values.Results: The first model, without any acceptability constraints, produced a 90% reduction in GHGEs but included only 7 food items, all in unrealistic quantities. The addition of acceptability constraints gave a more realistic diet with 52 foods but reduced GHGEs by a lesser amount of 36%. This diet included meat products but in smaller amounts than in the current diet. The retail cost of the diet was comparable to the average UK expenditure on food.Conclusion: A sustainable diet that meets dietary requirements for health with lower GHGEs can be achieved without eliminating meat or dairy products or increasing the cost to the consumer. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;96:632-9.

AB - Background: Food systems account for 18-20% of UK annual greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs). Recommendations for improving food choices to reduce GHGEs must be balanced against dietary requirements for health.Objective: We assessed whether a reduction in GHGEs can be achieved while meeting dietary requirements for health.Design: A database was created that linked nutrient composition and GHGE data for 82 food groups. Linear programming was used iteratively to produce a diet that met the dietary requirements of an adult woman (19-50 y old) while minimizing GHGEs. Acceptability constraints were added to the model to include foods commonly consumed in the United Kingdom in sensible quantities. A sample menu was created to ensure that the quantities and types of food generated from the model could be combined into a realistic 7-d diet. Reductions in GHGEs of the diets were set against 1990 emission values.Results: The first model, without any acceptability constraints, produced a 90% reduction in GHGEs but included only 7 food items, all in unrealistic quantities. The addition of acceptability constraints gave a more realistic diet with 52 foods but reduced GHGEs by a lesser amount of 36%. This diet included meat products but in smaller amounts than in the current diet. The retail cost of the diet was comparable to the average UK expenditure on food.Conclusion: A sustainable diet that meets dietary requirements for health with lower GHGEs can be achieved without eliminating meat or dairy products or increasing the cost to the consumer. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;96:632-9.

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