Synthesis and stability of potassium/carbonate co-substituted hydroxyapatites

John Morrison Whyte, Daniel James Hadden, Iain Ronald Gibson, Jan Skakle

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

4 Citations (Scopus)


A systematic study of the stability of potassium/carbonate co-substituted hydroxyapatite has been carried out, with samples synthesized by aqueous precipitation according to the charge-balanced mechanism:


Samples up to x=1.0 were prepared and their stability determined by heating at a range of temperatures in both air and CO2 environments. Results showed that whilst samples up to x=1.0 can be prepared phase-pure, the stability of these materials is strongly dependent on sintering temperature with the full range of compositions only being stable at 600 degrees C in CO2. The c unit cell parameter increases linearly with x, and, for a fixed composition, decreases linearly with temperature indicating loss of carbonate from the A-site. FTIR showed that samples contained carbonate at both A- and B-sites, and that carbonate content increased with x.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationBioceramics
EditorsGuy Daculsi, Pierre Layrolle
Place of PublicationZurich, Switzerland
PublisherTrans Tech Publications Ltd
Number of pages4
ISBN (Print)087849457X, 978-0878494576
Publication statusPublished - 30 Mar 2008
Event20th International Symposium on Ceramics in Medicine - Nantes, France
Duration: 24 Oct 200726 Oct 2007

Publication series

NameKey Engineering Materials
PublisherTrans Tech Publications Ltd
ISSN (Print)1013-9826


Conference20th International Symposium on Ceramics in Medicine


  • hydroxyapatite
  • potassium
  • carbonate
  • substitution
  • X-ray diffraction

Cite this

Whyte, J. M., Hadden, D. J., Gibson, I. R., & Skakle, J. (2008). Synthesis and stability of potassium/carbonate co-substituted hydroxyapatites. In G. Daculsi, & P. Layrolle (Eds.), Bioceramics (1-2 ed., Vol. 20, pp. 207-210). (Key Engineering Materials; Vol. 361-363). Trans Tech Publications Ltd.