Terminus-driven retreat of a major southwest Greenland tidewater glacier during the early 19th century

insights from glacier reconstructions and numerical modelling

James M. Lea, Douglas W.F. Mair, Faezeh M. Nick, Brice R. Rea, Anker Weidick, Kurt H. Kjaer, Mathieu Morlighem, Dirk van As, J. Edward Schofield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Tidewater glaciers in Greenland experienced widespread retreat during the last century. Information on their behaviour prior to this is often poorly constrained due to lack of observations, while determining the drivers prior to instrumental records is also problematic. Here we present a record of the dynamics of Kangiata Nunaata Sermia (KNS), southwest Greenland, from its Little Ice Age maximum (LIAmax) to 1859 – the period before continuous air temperature observations began at Nuuk in 1866. Using glacial geomorphology, historical accounts, photographs and GIS analyses, we provide evidence KNS was at its LIAmax by 1761, had retreated by 5 km by 1808 and a further 7km by 1859.
This predates retreat at Jakobshavn Isbræ by 43–113 years, demonstrating the asynchroneity of tidewater glacier terminus response following the LIA. We use a one-dimensional flowband model to determine the relative sensitivity of KNS to atmospheric and oceanic climate forcing. Results demonstrate that terminus forcing rather than surface mass balance drove the retreat. Modelled glacier sensitivity to submarine melt rates is also insufficient to explain the retreat observed. However, moderate increases in crevasse water depth, driving an increase in calving, are capable of causing terminus retreat of the observed magnitude and timing.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)333-344
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Glaciology
Volume60
Issue number220
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2014

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tidewater glacier
Little Ice Age
glacier
crevasse
climate forcing
geomorphology
modeling
photograph
mass balance
water depth
air temperature
GIS
melt
oceanic climate
rate

Keywords

  • glacial geomorphology
  • glacial calving
  • glacier fluctuations
  • glacier modelling

Cite this

Terminus-driven retreat of a major southwest Greenland tidewater glacier during the early 19th century : insights from glacier reconstructions and numerical modelling. / Lea, James M.; Mair, Douglas W.F.; Nick, Faezeh M.; Rea, Brice R.; Weidick, Anker; Kjaer, Kurt H.; Morlighem, Mathieu; van As, Dirk; Schofield, J. Edward.

In: Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 60, No. 220, 04.2014, p. 333-344.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lea, James M. ; Mair, Douglas W.F. ; Nick, Faezeh M. ; Rea, Brice R. ; Weidick, Anker ; Kjaer, Kurt H. ; Morlighem, Mathieu ; van As, Dirk ; Schofield, J. Edward. / Terminus-driven retreat of a major southwest Greenland tidewater glacier during the early 19th century : insights from glacier reconstructions and numerical modelling. In: Journal of Glaciology. 2014 ; Vol. 60, No. 220. pp. 333-344.
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AB - Tidewater glaciers in Greenland experienced widespread retreat during the last century. Information on their behaviour prior to this is often poorly constrained due to lack of observations, while determining the drivers prior to instrumental records is also problematic. Here we present a record of the dynamics of Kangiata Nunaata Sermia (KNS), southwest Greenland, from its Little Ice Age maximum (LIAmax) to 1859 – the period before continuous air temperature observations began at Nuuk in 1866. Using glacial geomorphology, historical accounts, photographs and GIS analyses, we provide evidence KNS was at its LIAmax by 1761, had retreated by 5 km by 1808 and a further 7km by 1859.This predates retreat at Jakobshavn Isbræ by 43–113 years, demonstrating the asynchroneity of tidewater glacier terminus response following the LIA. We use a one-dimensional flowband model to determine the relative sensitivity of KNS to atmospheric and oceanic climate forcing. Results demonstrate that terminus forcing rather than surface mass balance drove the retreat. Modelled glacier sensitivity to submarine melt rates is also insufficient to explain the retreat observed. However, moderate increases in crevasse water depth, driving an increase in calving, are capable of causing terminus retreat of the observed magnitude and timing.

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