A number of studies have suggested that football heading is associated with neuropsychological impairment. However, analyses indicating such a relationship have employed footballers' subjective estimations rather than objective measures of their heading frequency. This is despite frequency estimation research suggesting that such subjective estimations would be inaccurate. In two studies examining the relationship between footballers' heading frequency estimates and their observed heading frequency, footballers' estimates were found to be inaccurate, but positively related to their actual heading frequency. However, there were differences in estimate accuracy between studies. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed and recommendations are made for studies examining the relationship between heading frequency and neuropsychological impairment. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- professional soccer players
- brain injury