The reaction of the amino acid DL-proline is studied over stoichiometric and Ar-ions sputtered (reduced) TiO2(110) single crystal surfaces by synchrotron High Resolution X-ray Photorelectron Spectroscopy (HRXPS). On the stoichiometric surface proline gives two different species at 300 K: dissociated and zwitterionic. Upon heating the zwitterionic structure is removed first from the surface followed by the dissociated form. The C1s signal for the COO function is found close to 288.5 eV for both forms while the N1s for the dissociated form is found at 400.0 eV and that of the zwitterionic from close to 401.8 eV. From the attenuation of the Ti2p signal the surface coverage was estimated less than 1/2 (about 0.35). This smaller coverage than dissociatively adsorbed carboxylic acids on this surface (usually close to 1/2), is attributed to lateral repulsion caused by the ring of adjacent proline molecules adsorbed on five-fold coordinated Ti cations along the  direction. On the reduced surface the amount of zwitterion structure is found two times higher than that on the stoichiometric surface, at 300 K, most likely due to the considerable decrease of the amount of surface oxygen available. The stability of the zwitterionic structure on this surface is however found similar to that found on the stoichiometric surface. In addition, evidence of oxidation of reduced Ti cations upon adsorption at 300 K is noticed and explained as breaking of the carbon-oxygen bond of a fraction of adsorbed proline. Variable temperature HRXPS has been collected and results indicated that proline is more stable on the reduced surface compared to the stoichiometric surface. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
- TiO2(110) single crystal
- binding energy
- single-crystal surfaces
- temperature-programmed desorption
- glycine adsorption