The Cenozoic palaeoenvironment of the Arctic Ocean

K. Moran, J. Backman, H. Brinkhius, S. C. Clemens, T. Cronin, G. R. Dickens, F. Eynaud, J. Gattacceca, M. Jakobsson, R. W. Jordan, M. Kaminski, J. King, N. Koc, A. Krylov, N. Martinez, J. Matthiessen, D. Mcinroy, T. C. Moore, J. Onodera, M. O'Regan & 17 others H. Palike, Brice Reid Rea, D. Rio, T. Sakamoto, D. C. Smith, R. Stein, K. St. John, I. Suto, N. Suzuki, K. Takahashi, M. Watanabe, M. Yamamoto, J. Farrell, M. Frank, P. Kubick, W. Jokat, Y. Kristoffersen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The history of the Arctic Ocean during the Cenozoic era ( 0 - 65 million years ago) is largely unknown from direct evidence. Here we present a Cenozoic palaeoceanographic record constructed from >400 m of sediment core from a recent drilling expedition to the Lomonosov ridge in the Arctic Ocean. Our record shows a palaeoenvironmental transition from a warm 'greenhouse' world, during the late Palaeocene and early Eocene epochs, to a colder 'icehouse' world influenced by sea ice and icebergs from the middle Eocene epoch to the present. For the most recent similar to 14 Myr, we find sedimentation rates of 1 - 2 cm per thousand years, in stark contrast to the substantially lower rates proposed in earlier studies; this record of the Neogene reveals cooling of the Arctic that was synchronous with the expansion of Greenland ice (similar to 3.2 Myr ago) and East Antarctic ice (similar to 14 Myr ago). We find evidence for the first occurrence of ice-rafted debris in the middle Eocene epoch (similar to 45 Myr ago), some 35 Myr earlier than previously thought; fresh surface waters were present at,49 Myr ago, before the onset of ice-rafted debris. Also, the temperatures of surface waters during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum (similar to 55 Myr ago) appear to have been substantially warmer than previously estimated. The revised timing of the earliest Arctic cooling events coincides with those from Antarctica, supporting arguments for bipolar symmetry in climate change.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)601-605
Number of pages4
JournalNature
Volume441
Issue number7093
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2006

Keywords

  • THERMOHALINE CIRCULATION
  • SEDIMENTATION-RATES
  • THERMAL MAXIMUM
  • GLACIATION
  • PACIFIC
  • CALCITE
  • BASIN

Cite this

Moran, K., Backman, J., Brinkhius, H., Clemens, S. C., Cronin, T., Dickens, G. R., ... Kristoffersen, Y. (2006). The Cenozoic palaeoenvironment of the Arctic Ocean. Nature, 441(7093), 601-605. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04800

The Cenozoic palaeoenvironment of the Arctic Ocean. / Moran, K.; Backman, J.; Brinkhius, H.; Clemens, S. C.; Cronin, T.; Dickens, G. R.; Eynaud, F.; Gattacceca, J.; Jakobsson, M.; Jordan, R. W.; Kaminski, M.; King, J.; Koc, N.; Krylov, A.; Martinez, N.; Matthiessen, J.; Mcinroy, D.; Moore, T. C.; Onodera, J.; O'Regan, M.; Palike, H.; Rea, Brice Reid; Rio, D.; Sakamoto, T.; Smith, D. C.; Stein, R.; St. John, K.; Suto, I.; Suzuki, N.; Takahashi, K.; Watanabe, M.; Yamamoto, M.; Farrell, J.; Frank, M.; Kubick, P.; Jokat, W.; Kristoffersen, Y.

In: Nature, Vol. 441, No. 7093, 06.2006, p. 601-605.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Moran, K, Backman, J, Brinkhius, H, Clemens, SC, Cronin, T, Dickens, GR, Eynaud, F, Gattacceca, J, Jakobsson, M, Jordan, RW, Kaminski, M, King, J, Koc, N, Krylov, A, Martinez, N, Matthiessen, J, Mcinroy, D, Moore, TC, Onodera, J, O'Regan, M, Palike, H, Rea, BR, Rio, D, Sakamoto, T, Smith, DC, Stein, R, St. John, K, Suto, I, Suzuki, N, Takahashi, K, Watanabe, M, Yamamoto, M, Farrell, J, Frank, M, Kubick, P, Jokat, W & Kristoffersen, Y 2006, 'The Cenozoic palaeoenvironment of the Arctic Ocean', Nature, vol. 441, no. 7093, pp. 601-605. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04800
Moran K, Backman J, Brinkhius H, Clemens SC, Cronin T, Dickens GR et al. The Cenozoic palaeoenvironment of the Arctic Ocean. Nature. 2006 Jun;441(7093):601-605. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04800
Moran, K. ; Backman, J. ; Brinkhius, H. ; Clemens, S. C. ; Cronin, T. ; Dickens, G. R. ; Eynaud, F. ; Gattacceca, J. ; Jakobsson, M. ; Jordan, R. W. ; Kaminski, M. ; King, J. ; Koc, N. ; Krylov, A. ; Martinez, N. ; Matthiessen, J. ; Mcinroy, D. ; Moore, T. C. ; Onodera, J. ; O'Regan, M. ; Palike, H. ; Rea, Brice Reid ; Rio, D. ; Sakamoto, T. ; Smith, D. C. ; Stein, R. ; St. John, K. ; Suto, I. ; Suzuki, N. ; Takahashi, K. ; Watanabe, M. ; Yamamoto, M. ; Farrell, J. ; Frank, M. ; Kubick, P. ; Jokat, W. ; Kristoffersen, Y. / The Cenozoic palaeoenvironment of the Arctic Ocean. In: Nature. 2006 ; Vol. 441, No. 7093. pp. 601-605.
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abstract = "The history of the Arctic Ocean during the Cenozoic era ( 0 - 65 million years ago) is largely unknown from direct evidence. Here we present a Cenozoic palaeoceanographic record constructed from >400 m of sediment core from a recent drilling expedition to the Lomonosov ridge in the Arctic Ocean. Our record shows a palaeoenvironmental transition from a warm 'greenhouse' world, during the late Palaeocene and early Eocene epochs, to a colder 'icehouse' world influenced by sea ice and icebergs from the middle Eocene epoch to the present. For the most recent similar to 14 Myr, we find sedimentation rates of 1 - 2 cm per thousand years, in stark contrast to the substantially lower rates proposed in earlier studies; this record of the Neogene reveals cooling of the Arctic that was synchronous with the expansion of Greenland ice (similar to 3.2 Myr ago) and East Antarctic ice (similar to 14 Myr ago). We find evidence for the first occurrence of ice-rafted debris in the middle Eocene epoch (similar to 45 Myr ago), some 35 Myr earlier than previously thought; fresh surface waters were present at,49 Myr ago, before the onset of ice-rafted debris. Also, the temperatures of surface waters during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum (similar to 55 Myr ago) appear to have been substantially warmer than previously estimated. The revised timing of the earliest Arctic cooling events coincides with those from Antarctica, supporting arguments for bipolar symmetry in climate change.",
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AU - Moran, K.

AU - Backman, J.

AU - Brinkhius, H.

AU - Clemens, S. C.

AU - Cronin, T.

AU - Dickens, G. R.

AU - Eynaud, F.

AU - Gattacceca, J.

AU - Jakobsson, M.

AU - Jordan, R. W.

AU - Kaminski, M.

AU - King, J.

AU - Koc, N.

AU - Krylov, A.

AU - Martinez, N.

AU - Matthiessen, J.

AU - Mcinroy, D.

AU - Moore, T. C.

AU - Onodera, J.

AU - O'Regan, M.

AU - Palike, H.

AU - Rea, Brice Reid

AU - Rio, D.

AU - Sakamoto, T.

AU - Smith, D. C.

AU - Stein, R.

AU - St. John, K.

AU - Suto, I.

AU - Suzuki, N.

AU - Takahashi, K.

AU - Watanabe, M.

AU - Yamamoto, M.

AU - Farrell, J.

AU - Frank, M.

AU - Kubick, P.

AU - Jokat, W.

AU - Kristoffersen, Y.

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N2 - The history of the Arctic Ocean during the Cenozoic era ( 0 - 65 million years ago) is largely unknown from direct evidence. Here we present a Cenozoic palaeoceanographic record constructed from >400 m of sediment core from a recent drilling expedition to the Lomonosov ridge in the Arctic Ocean. Our record shows a palaeoenvironmental transition from a warm 'greenhouse' world, during the late Palaeocene and early Eocene epochs, to a colder 'icehouse' world influenced by sea ice and icebergs from the middle Eocene epoch to the present. For the most recent similar to 14 Myr, we find sedimentation rates of 1 - 2 cm per thousand years, in stark contrast to the substantially lower rates proposed in earlier studies; this record of the Neogene reveals cooling of the Arctic that was synchronous with the expansion of Greenland ice (similar to 3.2 Myr ago) and East Antarctic ice (similar to 14 Myr ago). We find evidence for the first occurrence of ice-rafted debris in the middle Eocene epoch (similar to 45 Myr ago), some 35 Myr earlier than previously thought; fresh surface waters were present at,49 Myr ago, before the onset of ice-rafted debris. Also, the temperatures of surface waters during the Palaeocene/Eocene thermal maximum (similar to 55 Myr ago) appear to have been substantially warmer than previously estimated. The revised timing of the earliest Arctic cooling events coincides with those from Antarctica, supporting arguments for bipolar symmetry in climate change.

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KW - THERMOHALINE CIRCULATION

KW - SEDIMENTATION-RATES

KW - THERMAL MAXIMUM

KW - GLACIATION

KW - PACIFIC

KW - CALCITE

KW - BASIN

U2 - 10.1038/nature04800

DO - 10.1038/nature04800

M3 - Article

VL - 441

SP - 601

EP - 605

JO - Nature

JF - Nature

SN - 0028-0836

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