The compositional and metabolic responses of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) to a gradient of dietary fish oil and associated n-3 long-chain PUFA content

Sam J S Houston, Vasileios Karalazos, John Tinsley , Mónica B Betancor, Samuel A M Martin, Douglas R Tocher, Oscar Monroig (Corresponding Author)

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Abstract

The replacement of fish oil (FO) with vegetable oil (VO) in feed formulations reduces the availability of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) to marine fish such as gilthead seabream. The aim of this study was to examine compositional and physiological responses to a dietary gradient of n-3 LC-PUFA. Six iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets (D1–D6) were fed to seabream, with the added oil being a blend of FO and VO to achieve a dietary gradient of n-3 LC-PUFA. Fish were sampled after 4 months feeding, to determine biochemical composition, tissue fatty acid concentrations and lipid metabolic gene expression. The results indicated a disturbance to lipid metabolism, with fat in the liver increased and fat deposits in the viscera reduced. Tissue fatty acid profiles were altered towards the fatty acid compositions of the diets. There was evidence of endogenous modification of dietary PUFA in the liver which correlated with the expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 (fads2). Expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (srebp1), fads2 and fatty acid synthase increased in the liver, whereas PPARα1 pathways appeared to be supressed by dietary VO in a concentration-dependent manner. The effects in lipogenic genes appear to become measurable in D1–D3, which agrees with the weight gain data suggesting that disturbances to energy metabolism and lipogenesis may be related to performance differences. These findings suggested that suppression of β-oxidation and stimulation of srebp1-mediated lipogenesis may play a role in contributing toward steatosis in fish fed n-3 LC-PUFA deficient diets.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1010-1022
Number of pages13
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Volume118
Issue number12
Early online date20 Nov 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Dec 2017

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Sea Bream
Unsaturated Dietary Fats
Plant Oils
Fish Oils
Fatty Acid Desaturases
Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1
Lipogenesis
Fishes
Fatty Acids
Diet
Liver
Fats
Diet Therapy
Fatty Acid Synthases
Viscera
Lipid Metabolism
Energy Metabolism
Weight Gain
Oils
Lipids

Keywords

  • Gilthead seabream
  • vegetable oil
  • fish oil
  • essential fatty acids
  • lipid metabolism

Cite this

The compositional and metabolic responses of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) to a gradient of dietary fish oil and associated n-3 long-chain PUFA content. / Houston, Sam J S ; Karalazos, Vasileios ; Tinsley , John; Betancor, Mónica B; Martin, Samuel A M; Tocher, Douglas R; Monroig, Oscar (Corresponding Author).

In: British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 118, No. 12, 28.12.2017, p. 1010-1022.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Houston, Sam J S ; Karalazos, Vasileios ; Tinsley , John ; Betancor, Mónica B ; Martin, Samuel A M ; Tocher, Douglas R ; Monroig, Oscar . / The compositional and metabolic responses of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) to a gradient of dietary fish oil and associated n-3 long-chain PUFA content. In: British Journal of Nutrition. 2017 ; Vol. 118, No. 12. pp. 1010-1022.
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abstract = "The replacement of fish oil (FO) with vegetable oil (VO) in feed formulations reduces the availability of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) to marine fish such as gilthead seabream. The aim of this study was to examine compositional and physiological responses to a dietary gradient of n-3 LC-PUFA. Six iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets (D1–D6) were fed to seabream, with the added oil being a blend of FO and VO to achieve a dietary gradient of n-3 LC-PUFA. Fish were sampled after 4 months feeding, to determine biochemical composition, tissue fatty acid concentrations and lipid metabolic gene expression. The results indicated a disturbance to lipid metabolism, with fat in the liver increased and fat deposits in the viscera reduced. Tissue fatty acid profiles were altered towards the fatty acid compositions of the diets. There was evidence of endogenous modification of dietary PUFA in the liver which correlated with the expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 (fads2). Expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (srebp1), fads2 and fatty acid synthase increased in the liver, whereas PPARα1 pathways appeared to be supressed by dietary VO in a concentration-dependent manner. The effects in lipogenic genes appear to become measurable in D1–D3, which agrees with the weight gain data suggesting that disturbances to energy metabolism and lipogenesis may be related to performance differences. These findings suggested that suppression of β-oxidation and stimulation of srebp1-mediated lipogenesis may play a role in contributing toward steatosis in fish fed n-3 LC-PUFA deficient diets.",
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note = "The authors express their gratitude to the technical team at the BioMar Feed Trial Unit, Hirtshals, in particular, Svend J{\o}rgen Steenfeldt for expert care of the experimental subjects, for training and supervision provided by laboratory staff at Nutrition Analytical Services and Molecular Biology at the Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, UK. S. J. S. H’s. PhD was co-funded by BioMar and the Marine Alliance for Science and Technology Scotland. BioMar provided the experimental feeds, trial facilities and fish, and covered travel expenses. V. K. and J. T. designed and executed the nutritional trial and all authors contributed to planning the analyses. V. K., J. T. and S. J. S. H. carried out the sampling. O. M., D. R. T and S. A. M. M. supervised the lead author. M. B. B. provided training in molecular biology to S. J. S. H. who carried out all analytical procedures. S. J. S. H. analysed all of the data and prepared the manuscript. Subsequently the manuscript was shared between all authors who made amendments, contributions and recommendations. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest",
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AU - Tinsley , John

AU - Betancor, Mónica B

AU - Martin, Samuel A M

AU - Tocher, Douglas R

AU - Monroig, Oscar

N1 - The authors express their gratitude to the technical team at the BioMar Feed Trial Unit, Hirtshals, in particular, Svend Jørgen Steenfeldt for expert care of the experimental subjects, for training and supervision provided by laboratory staff at Nutrition Analytical Services and Molecular Biology at the Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, UK. S. J. S. H’s. PhD was co-funded by BioMar and the Marine Alliance for Science and Technology Scotland. BioMar provided the experimental feeds, trial facilities and fish, and covered travel expenses. V. K. and J. T. designed and executed the nutritional trial and all authors contributed to planning the analyses. V. K., J. T. and S. J. S. H. carried out the sampling. O. M., D. R. T and S. A. M. M. supervised the lead author. M. B. B. provided training in molecular biology to S. J. S. H. who carried out all analytical procedures. S. J. S. H. analysed all of the data and prepared the manuscript. Subsequently the manuscript was shared between all authors who made amendments, contributions and recommendations. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest

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N2 - The replacement of fish oil (FO) with vegetable oil (VO) in feed formulations reduces the availability of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) to marine fish such as gilthead seabream. The aim of this study was to examine compositional and physiological responses to a dietary gradient of n-3 LC-PUFA. Six iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets (D1–D6) were fed to seabream, with the added oil being a blend of FO and VO to achieve a dietary gradient of n-3 LC-PUFA. Fish were sampled after 4 months feeding, to determine biochemical composition, tissue fatty acid concentrations and lipid metabolic gene expression. The results indicated a disturbance to lipid metabolism, with fat in the liver increased and fat deposits in the viscera reduced. Tissue fatty acid profiles were altered towards the fatty acid compositions of the diets. There was evidence of endogenous modification of dietary PUFA in the liver which correlated with the expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 (fads2). Expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (srebp1), fads2 and fatty acid synthase increased in the liver, whereas PPARα1 pathways appeared to be supressed by dietary VO in a concentration-dependent manner. The effects in lipogenic genes appear to become measurable in D1–D3, which agrees with the weight gain data suggesting that disturbances to energy metabolism and lipogenesis may be related to performance differences. These findings suggested that suppression of β-oxidation and stimulation of srebp1-mediated lipogenesis may play a role in contributing toward steatosis in fish fed n-3 LC-PUFA deficient diets.

AB - The replacement of fish oil (FO) with vegetable oil (VO) in feed formulations reduces the availability of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) to marine fish such as gilthead seabream. The aim of this study was to examine compositional and physiological responses to a dietary gradient of n-3 LC-PUFA. Six iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets (D1–D6) were fed to seabream, with the added oil being a blend of FO and VO to achieve a dietary gradient of n-3 LC-PUFA. Fish were sampled after 4 months feeding, to determine biochemical composition, tissue fatty acid concentrations and lipid metabolic gene expression. The results indicated a disturbance to lipid metabolism, with fat in the liver increased and fat deposits in the viscera reduced. Tissue fatty acid profiles were altered towards the fatty acid compositions of the diets. There was evidence of endogenous modification of dietary PUFA in the liver which correlated with the expression of fatty acid desaturase 2 (fads2). Expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (srebp1), fads2 and fatty acid synthase increased in the liver, whereas PPARα1 pathways appeared to be supressed by dietary VO in a concentration-dependent manner. The effects in lipogenic genes appear to become measurable in D1–D3, which agrees with the weight gain data suggesting that disturbances to energy metabolism and lipogenesis may be related to performance differences. These findings suggested that suppression of β-oxidation and stimulation of srebp1-mediated lipogenesis may play a role in contributing toward steatosis in fish fed n-3 LC-PUFA deficient diets.

KW - Gilthead seabream

KW - vegetable oil

KW - fish oil

KW - essential fatty acids

KW - lipid metabolism

U2 - 10.1017/S0007114517002975

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