The Design, Management and Operation of Flexible Transport Systems: comparison of experience between UK, Japan and India.

Steve Wright, C. David Emele, Masayuki Fukumoto, Nagendra R. Velaga, John Donald Nelson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)


Flexible transport systems (FTS) can offer an alternative to fixed route fixed schedule bus services in situations of low and dispersed demand. Although it is widely recognised that these on-demand services provide a better level of service to passengers at a lower operating cost than the infrequent fixed route services which they often replace, they still require significant financial support to cover their costs. As local authority budgets to support public transport continue to be reduced the sustainability of these services is being brought into sharper focus. In this paper we compare and contrast the development of FTS in UK, Japan and India. In particular we examine the extent to which new technologies are being used to contribute to a reduction in operating costs in the UK and Japan and whether these developments point to a future model for sustainable flexible service provision in developing countries, using India as an example.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)330-338
Number of pages9
JournalResearch in Transportation Economics
Early online date1 Nov 2014
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2014



  • Flexible transport systems
  • Design
  • Management
  • Operation
  • ICT
  • Legislation and policies
  • Subsidies

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