The development of fluvial environments within volcanic terrains

the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Province (Washington State, USA) as a case study

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstract

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Abstract

1. Introduction
The interplay between Large Igneous Province (LIP) volcanism and fluvial environments is not yet well understood, for which the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Province (CRBP) in Washington State, USA, offers exceptional study conditions. The CRBP comprises several extensive basaltic lava flows, which are intercalated with fluvial interbeds, and associated lacustrine and palaeosol environments.

2. Fluvial facies associations
Based on detailed lithofacies analysis the fluvial environments can be defined as sand-dominated channel facies, interbedded with gravel-dominated channel facies and mud-dominated overbank facies. The sand-dominated channel facies is characterised by single- to multi-storey sand bodies indicating a system of dunes, bars and channels. The gravel-dominated channel facies comprises mostly multi-storey and sheet-like conglomerate bodies, suggesting a network of gravel bars, gravel sheets and channels. Based on sedimentary facies analysis, the intra-basaltic drainage system development can be grouped into an early, middle and late stage evolution, which is strongly correlated with changes in volcanic activity during the LIP evolution.

3. Development of fluvial environments
The early stage CRBP evolution is indicated by high effusion rates and relatively short periods of volcanic quiescence. During this stage fluvial systems were dominated by a network of laterally migrating sand-dominated channels (up to 3.6 m deep), dunes, bars and muddy floodplains, which entered the lava field marginally. As the CRBP evolution succeeds and volcanic activity wanes river systems become larger in size (up to 6.5 m deep) and advance into the lava field centre (late stage of drainage evolution). The intercalation of sand- and gravel-dominated channel facies is common. Rivers floodplains further record significant ash input from fall out. At this stage the waning eruption rate causes longer periods of intra-volcanic sedimentation, providing more time for erosion, channel incision and progradation into the main area of volcanic activity.

4. Conclusions
These studies revealed that there is a close linkage between volcanism, lava flow emplacement and establishment of fluvial systems. As fluvial facies are the dominant sedimentary deposits within the CRBP stratigraphy, detailed studies on facies characteristics, distribution and evolution contribute greatly to the overall understanding of the CRBP drainage evolution, uplift and erosion and help to better understand sedimentation in LIP’s in general.

Acknowledgements
We thank Stephen Reidel, Washington State University, and Stephen Self, Open University, Milton Keynes, UK, for assistance with field work and providing field material. We thank Richard Conrey and Laureen Wagoner, Washington State University, for geochemical investigations. This project is supported by the Sindri Group.

References
Bridge, J.S. and Tye, R.S. (2000) Interpreting the Dimensions of Ancient Fluvial Channel Bars, Channels, and Channels Belts from Wireline-Logs and Cores. AAPG Bulletin, 84, 1205-1228.
Hole, M.J., Jolley, D.W., Hartley, A.J., Leleu, S., John, N and Ball, M. (in press) Magmatic controls on the drainage system of a low-volume lava field. Journal of the Geological Society.
Reidel, S.P., Fecht, K.R., Hagood, M.C. and Tolan, T.L. (1989) The geological evolution of the central Columbia Plateau. In: Volcanism and Tectonism in the Columbia River Flood-Basalt Province (Eds S.P. Reidel and P.R. Hooper), GSA Special Paper, 239, 247-264.
Tolan, T.L., Martin, B.S., Reidel, S.P., Anderson, J.L., Lindsey, K.A. and Burt, W. (2009) An introduction to the stratigraphy, structural geology, and hydrogeology of the Columbia River Flood-Basalt Province: A primer for the GSA Columbia River Basalt Group field trips. In: Volcanoes to Vineyards: Geological Field Trips through the Dynamic Landscape of the Pacific Northwest (Eds J.E. O'Connor, R.J. Dorsey and I.P. Madin), GSA Field Guide, 15, 599-643.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jul 2013
Event10th International Conference on Fluvial Sedimentology - Leeds, United Kingdom
Duration: 14 Jul 201319 Jul 2013

Conference

Conference10th International Conference on Fluvial Sedimentology
CountryUnited Kingdom
CityLeeds
Period14/07/1319/07/13

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basalt
Miocene
river
gravel
lava
volcanism
large igneous province
sand
flood basalt
lava flow
province
dune
floodplain
stratigraphy
sedimentation
drainage
erosion
structural geology
facies analysis
vineyard

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The development of fluvial environments within volcanic terrains : the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Province (Washington State, USA) as a case study. / Ebinghaus, Alena; Hartley, Adrian John; Jolley, David William; Millett, John; Hole, Malcolm John.

2013. Abstract from 10th International Conference on Fluvial Sedimentology, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstract

@conference{089c9a3fb5fd4919ad2951d090106b01,
title = "The development of fluvial environments within volcanic terrains: the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Province (Washington State, USA) as a case study",
abstract = "1. IntroductionThe interplay between Large Igneous Province (LIP) volcanism and fluvial environments is not yet well understood, for which the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Province (CRBP) in Washington State, USA, offers exceptional study conditions. The CRBP comprises several extensive basaltic lava flows, which are intercalated with fluvial interbeds, and associated lacustrine and palaeosol environments.2. Fluvial facies associations Based on detailed lithofacies analysis the fluvial environments can be defined as sand-dominated channel facies, interbedded with gravel-dominated channel facies and mud-dominated overbank facies. The sand-dominated channel facies is characterised by single- to multi-storey sand bodies indicating a system of dunes, bars and channels. The gravel-dominated channel facies comprises mostly multi-storey and sheet-like conglomerate bodies, suggesting a network of gravel bars, gravel sheets and channels. Based on sedimentary facies analysis, the intra-basaltic drainage system development can be grouped into an early, middle and late stage evolution, which is strongly correlated with changes in volcanic activity during the LIP evolution. 3. Development of fluvial environmentsThe early stage CRBP evolution is indicated by high effusion rates and relatively short periods of volcanic quiescence. During this stage fluvial systems were dominated by a network of laterally migrating sand-dominated channels (up to 3.6 m deep), dunes, bars and muddy floodplains, which entered the lava field marginally. As the CRBP evolution succeeds and volcanic activity wanes river systems become larger in size (up to 6.5 m deep) and advance into the lava field centre (late stage of drainage evolution). The intercalation of sand- and gravel-dominated channel facies is common. Rivers floodplains further record significant ash input from fall out. At this stage the waning eruption rate causes longer periods of intra-volcanic sedimentation, providing more time for erosion, channel incision and progradation into the main area of volcanic activity. 4. ConclusionsThese studies revealed that there is a close linkage between volcanism, lava flow emplacement and establishment of fluvial systems. As fluvial facies are the dominant sedimentary deposits within the CRBP stratigraphy, detailed studies on facies characteristics, distribution and evolution contribute greatly to the overall understanding of the CRBP drainage evolution, uplift and erosion and help to better understand sedimentation in LIP’s in general. AcknowledgementsWe thank Stephen Reidel, Washington State University, and Stephen Self, Open University, Milton Keynes, UK, for assistance with field work and providing field material. We thank Richard Conrey and Laureen Wagoner, Washington State University, for geochemical investigations. This project is supported by the Sindri Group. ReferencesBridge, J.S. and Tye, R.S. (2000) Interpreting the Dimensions of Ancient Fluvial Channel Bars, Channels, and Channels Belts from Wireline-Logs and Cores. AAPG Bulletin, 84, 1205-1228.Hole, M.J., Jolley, D.W., Hartley, A.J., Leleu, S., John, N and Ball, M. (in press) Magmatic controls on the drainage system of a low-volume lava field. Journal of the Geological Society.Reidel, S.P., Fecht, K.R., Hagood, M.C. and Tolan, T.L. (1989) The geological evolution of the central Columbia Plateau. In: Volcanism and Tectonism in the Columbia River Flood-Basalt Province (Eds S.P. Reidel and P.R. Hooper), GSA Special Paper, 239, 247-264.Tolan, T.L., Martin, B.S., Reidel, S.P., Anderson, J.L., Lindsey, K.A. and Burt, W. (2009) An introduction to the stratigraphy, structural geology, and hydrogeology of the Columbia River Flood-Basalt Province: A primer for the GSA Columbia River Basalt Group field trips. In: Volcanoes to Vineyards: Geological Field Trips through the Dynamic Landscape of the Pacific Northwest (Eds J.E. O'Connor, R.J. Dorsey and I.P. Madin), GSA Field Guide, 15, 599-643.",
author = "Alena Ebinghaus and Hartley, {Adrian John} and Jolley, {David William} and John Millett and Hole, {Malcolm John}",
year = "2013",
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note = "10th International Conference on Fluvial Sedimentology ; Conference date: 14-07-2013 Through 19-07-2013",

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T1 - The development of fluvial environments within volcanic terrains

T2 - the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Province (Washington State, USA) as a case study

AU - Ebinghaus, Alena

AU - Hartley, Adrian John

AU - Jolley, David William

AU - Millett, John

AU - Hole, Malcolm John

PY - 2013/7/14

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N2 - 1. IntroductionThe interplay between Large Igneous Province (LIP) volcanism and fluvial environments is not yet well understood, for which the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Province (CRBP) in Washington State, USA, offers exceptional study conditions. The CRBP comprises several extensive basaltic lava flows, which are intercalated with fluvial interbeds, and associated lacustrine and palaeosol environments.2. Fluvial facies associations Based on detailed lithofacies analysis the fluvial environments can be defined as sand-dominated channel facies, interbedded with gravel-dominated channel facies and mud-dominated overbank facies. The sand-dominated channel facies is characterised by single- to multi-storey sand bodies indicating a system of dunes, bars and channels. The gravel-dominated channel facies comprises mostly multi-storey and sheet-like conglomerate bodies, suggesting a network of gravel bars, gravel sheets and channels. Based on sedimentary facies analysis, the intra-basaltic drainage system development can be grouped into an early, middle and late stage evolution, which is strongly correlated with changes in volcanic activity during the LIP evolution. 3. Development of fluvial environmentsThe early stage CRBP evolution is indicated by high effusion rates and relatively short periods of volcanic quiescence. During this stage fluvial systems were dominated by a network of laterally migrating sand-dominated channels (up to 3.6 m deep), dunes, bars and muddy floodplains, which entered the lava field marginally. As the CRBP evolution succeeds and volcanic activity wanes river systems become larger in size (up to 6.5 m deep) and advance into the lava field centre (late stage of drainage evolution). The intercalation of sand- and gravel-dominated channel facies is common. Rivers floodplains further record significant ash input from fall out. At this stage the waning eruption rate causes longer periods of intra-volcanic sedimentation, providing more time for erosion, channel incision and progradation into the main area of volcanic activity. 4. ConclusionsThese studies revealed that there is a close linkage between volcanism, lava flow emplacement and establishment of fluvial systems. As fluvial facies are the dominant sedimentary deposits within the CRBP stratigraphy, detailed studies on facies characteristics, distribution and evolution contribute greatly to the overall understanding of the CRBP drainage evolution, uplift and erosion and help to better understand sedimentation in LIP’s in general. AcknowledgementsWe thank Stephen Reidel, Washington State University, and Stephen Self, Open University, Milton Keynes, UK, for assistance with field work and providing field material. We thank Richard Conrey and Laureen Wagoner, Washington State University, for geochemical investigations. This project is supported by the Sindri Group. ReferencesBridge, J.S. and Tye, R.S. (2000) Interpreting the Dimensions of Ancient Fluvial Channel Bars, Channels, and Channels Belts from Wireline-Logs and Cores. AAPG Bulletin, 84, 1205-1228.Hole, M.J., Jolley, D.W., Hartley, A.J., Leleu, S., John, N and Ball, M. (in press) Magmatic controls on the drainage system of a low-volume lava field. Journal of the Geological Society.Reidel, S.P., Fecht, K.R., Hagood, M.C. and Tolan, T.L. (1989) The geological evolution of the central Columbia Plateau. In: Volcanism and Tectonism in the Columbia River Flood-Basalt Province (Eds S.P. Reidel and P.R. Hooper), GSA Special Paper, 239, 247-264.Tolan, T.L., Martin, B.S., Reidel, S.P., Anderson, J.L., Lindsey, K.A. and Burt, W. (2009) An introduction to the stratigraphy, structural geology, and hydrogeology of the Columbia River Flood-Basalt Province: A primer for the GSA Columbia River Basalt Group field trips. In: Volcanoes to Vineyards: Geological Field Trips through the Dynamic Landscape of the Pacific Northwest (Eds J.E. O'Connor, R.J. Dorsey and I.P. Madin), GSA Field Guide, 15, 599-643.

AB - 1. IntroductionThe interplay between Large Igneous Province (LIP) volcanism and fluvial environments is not yet well understood, for which the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Province (CRBP) in Washington State, USA, offers exceptional study conditions. The CRBP comprises several extensive basaltic lava flows, which are intercalated with fluvial interbeds, and associated lacustrine and palaeosol environments.2. Fluvial facies associations Based on detailed lithofacies analysis the fluvial environments can be defined as sand-dominated channel facies, interbedded with gravel-dominated channel facies and mud-dominated overbank facies. The sand-dominated channel facies is characterised by single- to multi-storey sand bodies indicating a system of dunes, bars and channels. The gravel-dominated channel facies comprises mostly multi-storey and sheet-like conglomerate bodies, suggesting a network of gravel bars, gravel sheets and channels. Based on sedimentary facies analysis, the intra-basaltic drainage system development can be grouped into an early, middle and late stage evolution, which is strongly correlated with changes in volcanic activity during the LIP evolution. 3. Development of fluvial environmentsThe early stage CRBP evolution is indicated by high effusion rates and relatively short periods of volcanic quiescence. During this stage fluvial systems were dominated by a network of laterally migrating sand-dominated channels (up to 3.6 m deep), dunes, bars and muddy floodplains, which entered the lava field marginally. As the CRBP evolution succeeds and volcanic activity wanes river systems become larger in size (up to 6.5 m deep) and advance into the lava field centre (late stage of drainage evolution). The intercalation of sand- and gravel-dominated channel facies is common. Rivers floodplains further record significant ash input from fall out. At this stage the waning eruption rate causes longer periods of intra-volcanic sedimentation, providing more time for erosion, channel incision and progradation into the main area of volcanic activity. 4. ConclusionsThese studies revealed that there is a close linkage between volcanism, lava flow emplacement and establishment of fluvial systems. As fluvial facies are the dominant sedimentary deposits within the CRBP stratigraphy, detailed studies on facies characteristics, distribution and evolution contribute greatly to the overall understanding of the CRBP drainage evolution, uplift and erosion and help to better understand sedimentation in LIP’s in general. AcknowledgementsWe thank Stephen Reidel, Washington State University, and Stephen Self, Open University, Milton Keynes, UK, for assistance with field work and providing field material. We thank Richard Conrey and Laureen Wagoner, Washington State University, for geochemical investigations. This project is supported by the Sindri Group. ReferencesBridge, J.S. and Tye, R.S. (2000) Interpreting the Dimensions of Ancient Fluvial Channel Bars, Channels, and Channels Belts from Wireline-Logs and Cores. AAPG Bulletin, 84, 1205-1228.Hole, M.J., Jolley, D.W., Hartley, A.J., Leleu, S., John, N and Ball, M. (in press) Magmatic controls on the drainage system of a low-volume lava field. Journal of the Geological Society.Reidel, S.P., Fecht, K.R., Hagood, M.C. and Tolan, T.L. (1989) The geological evolution of the central Columbia Plateau. In: Volcanism and Tectonism in the Columbia River Flood-Basalt Province (Eds S.P. Reidel and P.R. Hooper), GSA Special Paper, 239, 247-264.Tolan, T.L., Martin, B.S., Reidel, S.P., Anderson, J.L., Lindsey, K.A. and Burt, W. (2009) An introduction to the stratigraphy, structural geology, and hydrogeology of the Columbia River Flood-Basalt Province: A primer for the GSA Columbia River Basalt Group field trips. In: Volcanoes to Vineyards: Geological Field Trips through the Dynamic Landscape of the Pacific Northwest (Eds J.E. O'Connor, R.J. Dorsey and I.P. Madin), GSA Field Guide, 15, 599-643.

M3 - Abstract

ER -