The development of the Helicopter Non-Technical Skills (HeliNOTS) behavioural marker systems

Oliver E. D. Hamlet* (Corresponding Author), Amy Irwin, Rhona Flin, Nejc Sedlar

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Behavioural marker systems (observational frameworks geared towards the assessment of non-technical skills by way of behavioural markers) exist across a variety of high-risk occupations, however, no identifiable system currently exists developed from rotary operative data. In this study, discussion groups (n = 9) were undertaken with subject matter experts (n = 20)—including pilots and technical crew operating across search and rescue and offshore transport environments—with the objective of identifying role-specific behavioural markers. Systems were reviewed on an iterative basis by the academic team and received final reviews by additional subject matter experts (n = 6). Two behavioural marker systems were constructed: HeliNOTS (O) for offshore transport pilots and HeliNOTS (SAR) for search and rescue crews; each with domain-specific behavioural markers. Both represent a significant step towards a nuanced approach to training and assessment of helicopter flight crews’ non-technical skills and are the first publicly available systems tailored to these distinct mission types.

Practitioner summary: There is no publicly available behavioural marker system based on data from rotary operatives. Across this study, two prototype systems were developed: HeliNOTS (SAR) for helicopter search and rescue, and HeliNOTS (O) for helicopter offshore transport. Both HeliNOTS systems represent a nuanced approach towards rotary CRM training and assessment.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages10
Early online date27 Mar 2023
Publication statusPublished - 3 Apr 2023


  • training evaluation
  • crew resource management
  • pilot/crew behaviour
  • pilot decision making
  • situation awareness


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