We carried out extensive field surveys in the dry forest portions of Madagascar to document the species of bats occurring in these regions. These data combined with information in the literature and museum specimen records indicate that 28 species of Chiroptera occur in this region of the island, of which we documented 27 during our inventories. The community composition at sites occurring in areas of water-eroded sedimentary rock is notably different from sites on alluvial substrates. In contrast to the majority of native land mammal species on Madagascar, much of the microchiropteran fauna is not dependent on large tracts of intact forest and anthropogenic perturbations of forests may have less direct impact on their long-term survival. Conservation strategies for Chiroptera in the dry regions of the island should focus on reducing various types of human disturbance of cave environments.