The ectodermal control in chick limb development: Wnt-7a, Shh, Bmp-2 and Bmp-4 expression and the effect of FGF-4 on gene expression

K Akita, P Francis-West, Neil Vargesson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)


We have manipulated the chick limb bud by dorsoventrally inverting the ectoderm, by grafting the AER to the dorsal or ventral ectoderm and by insertion of an FGF-4 soaked heparin bead into the mesoderm. After dorso-ventral reversal of the ectoderm, Wnt-7a expression is autonomous from an early stage of limb development in the original dorsal ectoderm. Exogenous FGF-4 causes ectopic Wnt-7a expression and induces ectopic Shh. In addition, exogenous FGF-4 increases the thickness of cartilages and also shortens them, and both Bmp-2 and Bmp-4 may mediate this effect. The ectoderm outside the AER can regulate not only the dorso-ventral polarity of the underlying mesenchyme cells but also the cartilage formation, and both Bmp-2 and Bmp-4 may mediate this control.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)127-137
Number of pages11
JournalMechanisms of Development
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 1996



  • Animals
  • Avian Proteins
  • Body Patterning
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
  • Cartilage
  • Chick Embryo
  • Ectoderm
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 4
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Hedgehog Proteins
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Limb Buds
  • Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Time Factors
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Wnt Proteins
  • Limb development
  • Wnt-7a
  • FGF-4
  • Bmp-2
  • Bmp-4
  • Shh
  • Chick

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