The effect of flexion angle on the macro and microscopic appearance of the rupture surface of the ACL of rabbits

Godfrey Azangwe, K. J. Mathias, D. Marshall

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    8 Citations (Scopus)


    This study investigated how knee flexion angle affects the appearance of the rupture surface of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using rabbit knees. Specimens were failed at flexion angles of 45 degrees and 90 degrees at displacement rates of 10 and 500 mm/min. Video recordings and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studied the appearance of the rupture surfaces. At the displacement rate of 10 mm/min, the major mode of failure was fibre pullout for all flexion angles. At displacement rate of 500 mm/min, which more closely approximated loading conditions during trauma, we found that all modes of failure were exhibited. At 45 degrees flexion, the majority of specimens tested failed by avulsion. The reverse was true for specimens tested at 90 degrees where the majority of failures were fibre pullouts. At 45 degrees, there were more pulled-out fibres on rupture surfaces of specimens tested at 10 mm/min than at 500 mm/min. At 90 degrees, little difference was seen in the appearance of ruptures from both rates. SEM revealed that the waviness of collagen fibres was more pronounced at 10 mm/min. Therefore, the appearance of rupture surfaces of ACLs are affected by both flexion angle and displacement rate. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)29-37
    Number of pages8
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - 2001


    • knee flexion angle
    • rupture surface
    • anterior cruciate ligament

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