Purpose of review Dyslipidaemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and can be modified by diet. However, the lipid response to dietary change may be influenced by genetic variation. This review examines recent research (published since August 2003) on the effect of genetic variation on the lipid response to dietary change.
Recent findings In 10 reports describing intervention studies and seven reports describing observational studies, the lipid response to diet was modified by polymorphisms within the genes for apoE, apoB, apoCIII, lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase, endothelial lipase, the liver fatty acid-binding protein, the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor, adipsin and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. The studies varied widely in terms of the number and type of study participants, the composition and duration of the dietary interventions, the nutrients studied and dietary assessment methods used in the observational studies, and the polymorphisms analysed - some of which had not been studied before with regard to the lipid response to diet.
Summary The lipid response to dietary change is highly complex. Future studies will have to be large in order to assess the effects of multiple polymorphisms, and will have to control for many factors other than diet. At present, it is premature to recommend the use of genotyping in the design of therapeutic diets. However, such studies may be useful in identifying the mechanisms by which dietary components influence lipid levels.
- LDL-CHOLESTEROL RESPONSE
- TYPE-2 DIABETIC-PATIENTS
- FAT INTAKE