The Effect of Off-farm Work on the Intensity of Agricultural Production

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36 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Changes in agricultural production methods have been associated with environmental pressure and a loss of natural habitats. This paper explores the extent to which farmer participation in off-farm work (an increasing phenomenon in most developed countries) changes the intensity of agricultural input use focusing, in particular, on fertilizer and crop protection product use. A sample selection model that accounts for both unobserved heterogeneity between farms and the potential simultaneity between farm operations and hours worked off-farm is estimated for 2,419 farms in England and Wales. The econometric evidence indicates that the input intensity of products which have well-established links to environmental damage can increase as well as decrease. The results suggest that that fertilizer intensity may decline as off-farm labor increases while the use of crop protection per hectare increases as off-farm work increases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)493-515
Number of pages22
JournalEnvironmental and Resource Economics
Volume34
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2006

Keywords

  • crop protection
  • farm household model
  • fertilizer
  • input intensity
  • multifunctionality
  • off-farm work
  • panel
  • ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS
  • HOUSEHOLD
  • SCOTLAND
  • ADOPTION
  • MODEL
  • CONSERVATION
  • PERCEPTIONS
  • FRAMEWORK
  • IMPACT
  • INPUT

Cite this

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title = "The Effect of Off-farm Work on the Intensity of Agricultural Production",
abstract = "Changes in agricultural production methods have been associated with environmental pressure and a loss of natural habitats. This paper explores the extent to which farmer participation in off-farm work (an increasing phenomenon in most developed countries) changes the intensity of agricultural input use focusing, in particular, on fertilizer and crop protection product use. A sample selection model that accounts for both unobserved heterogeneity between farms and the potential simultaneity between farm operations and hours worked off-farm is estimated for 2,419 farms in England and Wales. The econometric evidence indicates that the input intensity of products which have well-established links to environmental damage can increase as well as decrease. The results suggest that that fertilizer intensity may decline as off-farm labor increases while the use of crop protection per hectare increases as off-farm work increases.",
keywords = "crop protection, farm household model, fertilizer, input intensity, multifunctionality, off-farm work, panel, ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS, HOUSEHOLD, SCOTLAND, ADOPTION, MODEL, CONSERVATION, PERCEPTIONS, FRAMEWORK, IMPACT, INPUT",
author = "Phimister, {Euan Cartner} and Roberts, {Deborah Jane}",
year = "2006",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1007/s10640-006-0012-1",
language = "English",
volume = "34",
pages = "493--515",
journal = "Environmental and Resource Economics",
issn = "0924-6460",
publisher = "Springer Netherlands",
number = "4",

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T1 - The Effect of Off-farm Work on the Intensity of Agricultural Production

AU - Phimister, Euan Cartner

AU - Roberts, Deborah Jane

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N2 - Changes in agricultural production methods have been associated with environmental pressure and a loss of natural habitats. This paper explores the extent to which farmer participation in off-farm work (an increasing phenomenon in most developed countries) changes the intensity of agricultural input use focusing, in particular, on fertilizer and crop protection product use. A sample selection model that accounts for both unobserved heterogeneity between farms and the potential simultaneity between farm operations and hours worked off-farm is estimated for 2,419 farms in England and Wales. The econometric evidence indicates that the input intensity of products which have well-established links to environmental damage can increase as well as decrease. The results suggest that that fertilizer intensity may decline as off-farm labor increases while the use of crop protection per hectare increases as off-farm work increases.

AB - Changes in agricultural production methods have been associated with environmental pressure and a loss of natural habitats. This paper explores the extent to which farmer participation in off-farm work (an increasing phenomenon in most developed countries) changes the intensity of agricultural input use focusing, in particular, on fertilizer and crop protection product use. A sample selection model that accounts for both unobserved heterogeneity between farms and the potential simultaneity between farm operations and hours worked off-farm is estimated for 2,419 farms in England and Wales. The econometric evidence indicates that the input intensity of products which have well-established links to environmental damage can increase as well as decrease. The results suggest that that fertilizer intensity may decline as off-farm labor increases while the use of crop protection per hectare increases as off-farm work increases.

KW - crop protection

KW - farm household model

KW - fertilizer

KW - input intensity

KW - multifunctionality

KW - off-farm work

KW - panel

KW - ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS

KW - HOUSEHOLD

KW - SCOTLAND

KW - ADOPTION

KW - MODEL

KW - CONSERVATION

KW - PERCEPTIONS

KW - FRAMEWORK

KW - IMPACT

KW - INPUT

U2 - 10.1007/s10640-006-0012-1

DO - 10.1007/s10640-006-0012-1

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SP - 493

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JO - Environmental and Resource Economics

JF - Environmental and Resource Economics

SN - 0924-6460

IS - 4

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