The effect of spherical projectile speed in ricochet off water and sand

A. S. Soliman*, S. R. Reid, W. Johnson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)


Experimental results are reported for the ricochet of steel and duralumin spheres ( 3 8 in. and 1 in. dia.), from shallow depths of water and dry sand. The critical angle for ricochet off water is shown to increase with speed to approach the theoretical limit of 18 √σ deg. For ricochet off sand the critical angle decreases with speed but a cut-off angle exists, 82 √σ deg, for which no ricochet occurs at any speed.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Mechanical Sciences
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1976


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering

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