The Evolution of Pharmaceutical Care for Drug Misusers

Helen D Robertson, Christine Bond, Catriona Matheson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background In the last 20 years pharmaceutical care has evolved as a modus operandi for community pharmacy. This paper tracks the development of pharmaceutical care for drug misusers since 1995 and considers the implications for pharmacy engagement with the wider care team. Aim To survey current community pharmacy service provision for drug misusers, past training and future training needs and compare with data from previous years (1995, 2000, 2006). Method A cross-sectional postal questionnaire of pharmacy managers in Scotland (n=1,246), and telephone interviews with non-respondents. Results were compared with previous surveys. Results The response rate was 70% (873) including 13.2% (164) by telephone. More pharmacies dispensed methadone in 2014 (88.5%) than previously, a significant increase across all time points (1995, 2000, 2006) (p<0.001). Most pharmacies (88.1%) had some drug misusers registered for the Minor Ailment Scheme. In 2014, 43.4% of pharmacists always reported a drug misuser’s non-attendance for opiate replacement treatment (ORT) to the prescriber (36.6% in 2006). If patient intoxication was suspected, medication was always withheld by 47.9% (27.5% in 2006). Pharmacists undertaking training in drug misuse and blood-borne diseases increased significantly since 1995, to 78.6% and 48.7% respectively in 2014 (p<0.001). The preferred topic for future training was communication/engagement with other services. Conclusion Pharmaceutical care for drug misusers has evolved from ORT supply to a more clinical approach. Pharmacists actively monitored ORT patients, managed their minor ailments and increasingly engaged with the wider care team.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)639-645
Number of pages7
JournalFamily Practice
Volume32
Issue number6
Early online date25 Oct 2015
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2015

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Pharmaceutical Services
Opiate Alkaloids
Pharmacies
Pharmacists
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Community Pharmacy Services
Nimodipine
Hematologic Diseases
Methadone
Scotland
Telephone
Therapeutics
Communication
Interviews
Surveys and Questionnaires

Keywords

  • pharmaceutical care
  • drug misuse
  • minor ailment scheme

Cite this

The Evolution of Pharmaceutical Care for Drug Misusers. / Robertson, Helen D; Bond, Christine; Matheson, Catriona.

In: Family Practice, Vol. 32, No. 6, 12.2015, p. 639-645.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Robertson, Helen D ; Bond, Christine ; Matheson, Catriona. / The Evolution of Pharmaceutical Care for Drug Misusers. In: Family Practice. 2015 ; Vol. 32, No. 6. pp. 639-645.
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title = "The Evolution of Pharmaceutical Care for Drug Misusers",
abstract = "Background In the last 20 years pharmaceutical care has evolved as a modus operandi for community pharmacy. This paper tracks the development of pharmaceutical care for drug misusers since 1995 and considers the implications for pharmacy engagement with the wider care team. Aim To survey current community pharmacy service provision for drug misusers, past training and future training needs and compare with data from previous years (1995, 2000, 2006). Method A cross-sectional postal questionnaire of pharmacy managers in Scotland (n=1,246), and telephone interviews with non-respondents. Results were compared with previous surveys. Results The response rate was 70{\%} (873) including 13.2{\%} (164) by telephone. More pharmacies dispensed methadone in 2014 (88.5{\%}) than previously, a significant increase across all time points (1995, 2000, 2006) (p<0.001). Most pharmacies (88.1{\%}) had some drug misusers registered for the Minor Ailment Scheme. In 2014, 43.4{\%} of pharmacists always reported a drug misuser’s non-attendance for opiate replacement treatment (ORT) to the prescriber (36.6{\%} in 2006). If patient intoxication was suspected, medication was always withheld by 47.9{\%} (27.5{\%} in 2006). Pharmacists undertaking training in drug misuse and blood-borne diseases increased significantly since 1995, to 78.6{\%} and 48.7{\%} respectively in 2014 (p<0.001). The preferred topic for future training was communication/engagement with other services. Conclusion Pharmaceutical care for drug misusers has evolved from ORT supply to a more clinical approach. Pharmacists actively monitored ORT patients, managed their minor ailments and increasingly engaged with the wider care team.",
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note = "This survey was funded by a grant from the Chief Scientist Office (CSO), Grant No: CZH/4/998. Acknowledgements We thank all pharmacists in Scotland who responded to questionnaires for this study and Aileen Bryson, RPS Scotland and Specialist Pharmacists in Substance Misuse (SSPiSMs) who encouraged local pharmacists to take part.",
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N2 - Background In the last 20 years pharmaceutical care has evolved as a modus operandi for community pharmacy. This paper tracks the development of pharmaceutical care for drug misusers since 1995 and considers the implications for pharmacy engagement with the wider care team. Aim To survey current community pharmacy service provision for drug misusers, past training and future training needs and compare with data from previous years (1995, 2000, 2006). Method A cross-sectional postal questionnaire of pharmacy managers in Scotland (n=1,246), and telephone interviews with non-respondents. Results were compared with previous surveys. Results The response rate was 70% (873) including 13.2% (164) by telephone. More pharmacies dispensed methadone in 2014 (88.5%) than previously, a significant increase across all time points (1995, 2000, 2006) (p<0.001). Most pharmacies (88.1%) had some drug misusers registered for the Minor Ailment Scheme. In 2014, 43.4% of pharmacists always reported a drug misuser’s non-attendance for opiate replacement treatment (ORT) to the prescriber (36.6% in 2006). If patient intoxication was suspected, medication was always withheld by 47.9% (27.5% in 2006). Pharmacists undertaking training in drug misuse and blood-borne diseases increased significantly since 1995, to 78.6% and 48.7% respectively in 2014 (p<0.001). The preferred topic for future training was communication/engagement with other services. Conclusion Pharmaceutical care for drug misusers has evolved from ORT supply to a more clinical approach. Pharmacists actively monitored ORT patients, managed their minor ailments and increasingly engaged with the wider care team.

AB - Background In the last 20 years pharmaceutical care has evolved as a modus operandi for community pharmacy. This paper tracks the development of pharmaceutical care for drug misusers since 1995 and considers the implications for pharmacy engagement with the wider care team. Aim To survey current community pharmacy service provision for drug misusers, past training and future training needs and compare with data from previous years (1995, 2000, 2006). Method A cross-sectional postal questionnaire of pharmacy managers in Scotland (n=1,246), and telephone interviews with non-respondents. Results were compared with previous surveys. Results The response rate was 70% (873) including 13.2% (164) by telephone. More pharmacies dispensed methadone in 2014 (88.5%) than previously, a significant increase across all time points (1995, 2000, 2006) (p<0.001). Most pharmacies (88.1%) had some drug misusers registered for the Minor Ailment Scheme. In 2014, 43.4% of pharmacists always reported a drug misuser’s non-attendance for opiate replacement treatment (ORT) to the prescriber (36.6% in 2006). If patient intoxication was suspected, medication was always withheld by 47.9% (27.5% in 2006). Pharmacists undertaking training in drug misuse and blood-borne diseases increased significantly since 1995, to 78.6% and 48.7% respectively in 2014 (p<0.001). The preferred topic for future training was communication/engagement with other services. Conclusion Pharmaceutical care for drug misusers has evolved from ORT supply to a more clinical approach. Pharmacists actively monitored ORT patients, managed their minor ailments and increasingly engaged with the wider care team.

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