The expanding repertoire of the IL-12 cytokine family in teleost fish: Identification of three paralogues each of the p35 and p40 genes in salmonids, and comparative analysis of their expression and modulation in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

Tiehui Wang*, Mansourah Husain

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Citations (Scopus)


Interleukin (IL)-12 family cytokines are heterodimers of an alpha-chain (p19, p28 and p35) and a beta-chain (p40 and Ebi3), present as IL-12 (p35/p40), IL-23 (p19/p40), IL-27 (p28/Ebi3) and IL-35 (p35/Ebi3), and play key roles in immune responses in mammals. One p35 and up to three p40 genes have been cloned in some fish species. The identification of three active p35 genes, along with three p40 paralogues in salmonids in the current study further expands the repertoire of IL-12, IL-23 and IL-35 molecules in these species. The multiple p35 genes in teleost fish appear to have arisen via whole genome duplications. The different paralogues of the subunits are divergent, and differentially expressed and modulated by PAMPs and proinflammatory cytokines, hinting that distinct isoforms could be produced in response to infection. Therefore, the expanded IL-12 cytokine family may provide an unprecedented level of regulation to fine tune the immune response in fish. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)194-207
Number of pages14
JournalDevelopmental and Comparative Immunology
Issue number2
Early online date20 Apr 2014
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2014


  • IL-12
  • IL-23
  • IL-35
  • p35
  • p40
  • Salmonid
  • trout oncorhynchus-mykiss
  • regulatory mechanisms
  • genome duplication
  • adaptive immunity
  • interleukin-12
  • bioactivity
  • cloning
  • protein
  • innate
  • infection

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