The geographic distribution of Big Five personality traits: Patterns and profiles of human self-description across 56 nations

David P. Schmitt, J Allik, R. R. McCrae, V. Benet-Martínez, L. Alcalay, L. Ault, I. Austers, K. L. Bennett, G. Bianchi, F. Boholst, M. A. Borg Cunene, J. Braeckman, E. G. Brained Jr., Bert Timmermans, T. Vanhoomissen, F. Van Overwalle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

493 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Big Five Inventory (BFI) is a self-report measure designed to assess the high-order personality traits of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness. As part of the International Sexuality Description Project, the BFI was translated from English into 28 languages and administered to 17,837 individuals from 56 nations. The resulting cross-cultural data set was used to address three main questions: Does the factor structure of the English BFI fully replicate across cultures? How valid are the BFI trait profiles of individual nations? And how are personality traits distributed throughout the world? The five-dimensional structure was robust across major regions of the world. Trait levels were related in predictable ways to self-esteem, sociosexuality, and national personality profiles. People from the geographic regions of South America and East Asia were significantly different in openness from those inhabiting other world regions. The discussion focuses on limitations of the current data set and important directions for future research.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)173-212
Number of pages36
JournalJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
Volume38
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2007

Fingerprint

personality traits
Personality
Equipment and Supplies
Far East
neuroticism
South America
Sexuality
Self Concept
Self Report
self-esteem
sexuality
personality
Language
language
Datasets

Cite this

Schmitt, D. P., Allik, J., McCrae, R. R., Benet-Martínez, V., Alcalay, L., Ault, L., ... Van Overwalle, F. (2007). The geographic distribution of Big Five personality traits: Patterns and profiles of human self-description across 56 nations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38(2), 173-212. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022106297299

The geographic distribution of Big Five personality traits: Patterns and profiles of human self-description across 56 nations. / Schmitt, David P.; Allik, J; McCrae, R. R.; Benet-Martínez, V.; Alcalay, L.; Ault, L.; Austers, I.; Bennett, K. L.; Bianchi, G.; Boholst, F.; Borg Cunene, M. A.; Braeckman, J.; Brained Jr., E. G.; Timmermans, Bert; Vanhoomissen, T.; Van Overwalle, F.

In: Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol. 38, No. 2, 03.2007, p. 173-212.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Schmitt, DP, Allik, J, McCrae, RR, Benet-Martínez, V, Alcalay, L, Ault, L, Austers, I, Bennett, KL, Bianchi, G, Boholst, F, Borg Cunene, MA, Braeckman, J, Brained Jr., EG, Timmermans, B, Vanhoomissen, T & Van Overwalle, F 2007, 'The geographic distribution of Big Five personality traits: Patterns and profiles of human self-description across 56 nations', Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 173-212. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022106297299
Schmitt, David P. ; Allik, J ; McCrae, R. R. ; Benet-Martínez, V. ; Alcalay, L. ; Ault, L. ; Austers, I. ; Bennett, K. L. ; Bianchi, G. ; Boholst, F. ; Borg Cunene, M. A. ; Braeckman, J. ; Brained Jr., E. G. ; Timmermans, Bert ; Vanhoomissen, T. ; Van Overwalle, F. / The geographic distribution of Big Five personality traits: Patterns and profiles of human self-description across 56 nations. In: Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 2007 ; Vol. 38, No. 2. pp. 173-212.
@article{0f8a1577a87248f6aa417b73ebedc53b,
title = "The geographic distribution of Big Five personality traits: Patterns and profiles of human self-description across 56 nations",
abstract = "The Big Five Inventory (BFI) is a self-report measure designed to assess the high-order personality traits of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness. As part of the International Sexuality Description Project, the BFI was translated from English into 28 languages and administered to 17,837 individuals from 56 nations. The resulting cross-cultural data set was used to address three main questions: Does the factor structure of the English BFI fully replicate across cultures? How valid are the BFI trait profiles of individual nations? And how are personality traits distributed throughout the world? The five-dimensional structure was robust across major regions of the world. Trait levels were related in predictable ways to self-esteem, sociosexuality, and national personality profiles. People from the geographic regions of South America and East Asia were significantly different in openness from those inhabiting other world regions. The discussion focuses on limitations of the current data set and important directions for future research.",
author = "Schmitt, {David P.} and J Allik and McCrae, {R. R.} and V. Benet-Mart{\'i}nez and L. Alcalay and L. Ault and I. Austers and Bennett, {K. L.} and G. Bianchi and F. Boholst and {Borg Cunene}, {M. A.} and J. Braeckman and {Brained Jr.}, {E. G.} and Bert Timmermans and T. Vanhoomissen and {Van Overwalle}, F.",
year = "2007",
month = "3",
doi = "10.1177/0022022106297299",
language = "English",
volume = "38",
pages = "173--212",
journal = "Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology",
issn = "0022-0221",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Inc.",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The geographic distribution of Big Five personality traits: Patterns and profiles of human self-description across 56 nations

AU - Schmitt, David P.

AU - Allik, J

AU - McCrae, R. R.

AU - Benet-Martínez, V.

AU - Alcalay, L.

AU - Ault, L.

AU - Austers, I.

AU - Bennett, K. L.

AU - Bianchi, G.

AU - Boholst, F.

AU - Borg Cunene, M. A.

AU - Braeckman, J.

AU - Brained Jr., E. G.

AU - Timmermans, Bert

AU - Vanhoomissen, T.

AU - Van Overwalle, F.

PY - 2007/3

Y1 - 2007/3

N2 - The Big Five Inventory (BFI) is a self-report measure designed to assess the high-order personality traits of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness. As part of the International Sexuality Description Project, the BFI was translated from English into 28 languages and administered to 17,837 individuals from 56 nations. The resulting cross-cultural data set was used to address three main questions: Does the factor structure of the English BFI fully replicate across cultures? How valid are the BFI trait profiles of individual nations? And how are personality traits distributed throughout the world? The five-dimensional structure was robust across major regions of the world. Trait levels were related in predictable ways to self-esteem, sociosexuality, and national personality profiles. People from the geographic regions of South America and East Asia were significantly different in openness from those inhabiting other world regions. The discussion focuses on limitations of the current data set and important directions for future research.

AB - The Big Five Inventory (BFI) is a self-report measure designed to assess the high-order personality traits of Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness. As part of the International Sexuality Description Project, the BFI was translated from English into 28 languages and administered to 17,837 individuals from 56 nations. The resulting cross-cultural data set was used to address three main questions: Does the factor structure of the English BFI fully replicate across cultures? How valid are the BFI trait profiles of individual nations? And how are personality traits distributed throughout the world? The five-dimensional structure was robust across major regions of the world. Trait levels were related in predictable ways to self-esteem, sociosexuality, and national personality profiles. People from the geographic regions of South America and East Asia were significantly different in openness from those inhabiting other world regions. The discussion focuses on limitations of the current data set and important directions for future research.

U2 - 10.1177/0022022106297299

DO - 10.1177/0022022106297299

M3 - Article

VL - 38

SP - 173

EP - 212

JO - Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology

JF - Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology

SN - 0022-0221

IS - 2

ER -