The Glasgow Climate Conference (COP26)

Mitchell Lennan, Elisa Morgera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


After over a decade of international efforts to include the ocean in the policy discussions at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) annual Conference of the Parties (COP), the ocean has finally been included by, inter alia, a reference to ‘ocean-based action’ in a series of COP outcomes, notable among which is the cover decisions known as the ‘Glasgow Climate Pact’. This article provides the necessary background to the inclusion of the ocean in COP26 outcomes, including the Pact, and examines key issues, impacts and shortfalls of the Pact and other COP26 outcomes, including mitigation, adaptation, finance and human rights. It concludes with suggestions for priority research areas moving forward.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)137-151
Number of pages15
JournalThe International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law
Issue number1
Early online date7 Feb 2022
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2022


  • climate change
  • ocean
  • mitigation
  • adaptation
  • climate finance
  • human rights


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