Detrimental effects of maternal smoking on the term placental proteome and steroid-metabolizing activities, and maternal hormone levels, were studied by using seven non-smoker and seven smoker placentae. Smoking significantly affected 18% of protein spots. The functional networks affected were i) cell morphology, cellular assembly and organization, cellular compromise (15 hits) and ii) DNA replication, recombination, and repair, energy production, nucleic acid metabolism (6 hits). Smoking significantly up-regulated such proteins as, SERPINA1, EFHD1 and KRT8; and down-regulated SERPINB2, FGA and HBB. Although maternal plasma steroids were not significantly altered, the catalytic activity of CYP1A1 was increased whereas CYP19A1 activity was reduced by smoking. Furthermore, transcript expression of CYP1A1 and CYP4B1 were induced while HSD17B2, NFKB and TGFB1 were repressed by smoking. The observed smoking induced wide-spread changes on placental proteome and transcript levels may contribute to the lowered birth weights of the new-born child and placenta.
- maternal smoking
- steroid hormones