Objective: Low glycemic index (GI) foods have been suggested to minimize large fluctuations in blood glucose levels and reduce food intake. However, the majority of studies have been conducted on Caucasian populations with limited data on Asians. The objective of this study was to investigate how the provision of a low GI breakfast and afternoon snack affected daily blood glucose profiles and food intake.
Materials and methods: In a randomized, controlled crossover non blind design, 11 healthy Chinese male adults (body mass index 22.4 ± 1.3 kg m-2) attended two sessions where they consumed either a high or low GI breakfast and afternoon snack, and a standardized buffet lunch. Daily changes in glycemic response (GR) were measured using the Medtronic MiniMed (Northridge, CA) iPro™2 continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS). The GR was further calculated to obtain the incremental area under the curve (IAUC). Glycemic variability was calculated as mean amplitude of glycemic excursion (MAGE) and energy intake (kcal) was measured quantitatively at the buffet lunch.
Results: Compared to the high GI intervention, the low GI intervention significantly reduced the GR following breakfast (p = 0.02), lunch (p = 0.02) and dinner (p = 0.05). The low GI treatment showed a reduction in daily AUC (p = 0.03). There was a significant reduction in IAUC after a low GI breakfast compared to the high GI breakfast (p = 0.03). The low GI breakfast resulted in a significantly lower food intake at lunch and a resulting decreased energy intake of 285 kcal (p = 0.02). The MAGE was significantly lower during the entire low GI treatment (p = 0.03).
Conclusions: Consumption of a low GI breakfast and afternoon snack was capable of attenuating 24-h blood glucose profiles, minimize glycemic excursions and reduce food intake in healthy Asian males. This simple dietary intervention may be an acceptable approach in improving overall glycemia and energy balance in Asians.
Clinical trial registration number: NCT02340507.
- Glycemic index
- Glycemic response
- Continuous glucose monitoring