The Indian Nitrogen Challenge in a Global Perspective

M. A. Sutton, J. Drewer, A. Moring, T. K. Adhya, A. Ahmed, A. Bhatia, W. Brownlie, U. Dragosits, S. D. Ghude, J. Hillier, S. Hooda, C. M. Howard, N. Jain, Dinesh Kumar, R. M. Kumar, D. R. Nayak, C. N. Neeraja, R. Prasanna, A. Price, B. Ramakrishnan & 12 others D. S. Reay, Renu Singh, U. Skiba, J. U. Smith, S. Sohi, D. Subrahmanyan, K. Surekha, H. J.M. van Grinsven, M. Vieno, S. R. Voleti, H. Pathak, N. Raghuram

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

    1 Citation (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Human activities have massively altered the global nitrogen (N) cycle, doubling annual production of reactive N (Nr) compounds from atmospheric dinitrogen (N2). The use of 120 Mt year-1 fertilizer N, with a global terrestrial/atmospheric N fixation of 285Mtyear-1, has provided huge benefits for global food production. However, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of the world food system is only -15%. The lost Nr creates a cascade of air and water pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, until it is eventually denitrified back to N2.India clearly illustrates a dual N challenge for food and environment, consuming 17Mt of N fertilizer annually (14% of the global total), which has increased since 1970 at 6% year-1 approximately. Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from combustion sources are also increasing rapidly at 6.5% year-1 currently. By comparison, population growth rate is lower (2% year-1), while ammonia (NH3) emission increase is even less (1%), pertaining to smaller changes in livestock numbers. At current rate, Indian NOx emissions will exceed NH3 emissions by 2055. India currently loses Nr worth US$10billionyear-1 as fertilizer value, while costs of Nr to health, ecosystems, and climate are estimated at US$75 (38-151) billion year-1.Only a small fraction of the Indian population consumes animal products, hence per capita Nr use and pollution is much less than in many developed countries. However, rates of meat consumption are increasing. While published projections from the UN Food and Agriculture Organization anticipate a doubling of South Asian fertilizer consumption from 2006 to 2050 (equivalent to 1.9% year-1 increase), these projections lack transparency and require reevaluation. In practice, the future nitrogen cycle for India will depend on scientific advances in agronomy, genetics and environment, and the extent to which government and society grasp the emerging opportunities for optimizing N management.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationThe Indian Nitrogen Assessment
    Subtitle of host publicationSources of Reactive Nitrogen, Environmental and Climate Effects, Management Options, and Policies
    EditorsYash P. Abrol, Tapan K. Adhya, Viney P. Aneja, Nandula Raghuram, Himanshu Pathak, Umesh Kulshrestha, Chhemendra Sharma, Bijay Singh
    PublisherElsevier
    Pages9-28
    Number of pages20
    ISBN (Electronic)9780128119044
    ISBN (Print)9780128118368
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 24 Aug 2017

    Fingerprint

    global perspective
    Fertilizers
    Nitrogen
    Nitrogen Oxides
    fertilizer
    nitrogen
    nitrogen oxides
    food
    Agronomy
    Water pollution
    Cascades (fluid mechanics)
    Meats
    animal product
    Air pollution
    Gas emissions
    Ammonia
    Greenhouse gases
    nitrogen cycle
    Transparency
    Ecosystems

    Keywords

    • Emission
    • Environment
    • Fertilizer policy
    • Human health
    • India
    • Nitrogen challenge
    • Nitrogen fixation
    • Nitrogen pollution
    • Nitrogen use efficiency

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Chemistry(all)
    • Environmental Science(all)

    Cite this

    Sutton, M. A., Drewer, J., Moring, A., Adhya, T. K., Ahmed, A., Bhatia, A., ... Raghuram, N. (2017). The Indian Nitrogen Challenge in a Global Perspective. In Y. P. Abrol, T. K. Adhya, V. P. Aneja, N. Raghuram, H. Pathak, U. Kulshrestha, C. Sharma, ... B. Singh (Eds.), The Indian Nitrogen Assessment: Sources of Reactive Nitrogen, Environmental and Climate Effects, Management Options, and Policies (pp. 9-28). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-811836-8.00002-1

    The Indian Nitrogen Challenge in a Global Perspective. / Sutton, M. A.; Drewer, J.; Moring, A.; Adhya, T. K.; Ahmed, A.; Bhatia, A.; Brownlie, W.; Dragosits, U.; Ghude, S. D.; Hillier, J.; Hooda, S.; Howard, C. M.; Jain, N.; Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, R. M.; Nayak, D. R.; Neeraja, C. N.; Prasanna, R.; Price, A.; Ramakrishnan, B.; Reay, D. S.; Singh, Renu; Skiba, U.; Smith, J. U.; Sohi, S.; Subrahmanyan, D.; Surekha, K.; van Grinsven, H. J.M.; Vieno, M.; Voleti, S. R.; Pathak, H.; Raghuram, N.

    The Indian Nitrogen Assessment: Sources of Reactive Nitrogen, Environmental and Climate Effects, Management Options, and Policies. ed. / Yash P. Abrol; Tapan K. Adhya; Viney P. Aneja; Nandula Raghuram; Himanshu Pathak; Umesh Kulshrestha; Chhemendra Sharma; Bijay Singh. Elsevier, 2017. p. 9-28.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

    Sutton, MA, Drewer, J, Moring, A, Adhya, TK, Ahmed, A, Bhatia, A, Brownlie, W, Dragosits, U, Ghude, SD, Hillier, J, Hooda, S, Howard, CM, Jain, N, Kumar, D, Kumar, RM, Nayak, DR, Neeraja, CN, Prasanna, R, Price, A, Ramakrishnan, B, Reay, DS, Singh, R, Skiba, U, Smith, JU, Sohi, S, Subrahmanyan, D, Surekha, K, van Grinsven, HJM, Vieno, M, Voleti, SR, Pathak, H & Raghuram, N 2017, The Indian Nitrogen Challenge in a Global Perspective. in YP Abrol, TK Adhya, VP Aneja, N Raghuram, H Pathak, U Kulshrestha, C Sharma & B Singh (eds), The Indian Nitrogen Assessment: Sources of Reactive Nitrogen, Environmental and Climate Effects, Management Options, and Policies. Elsevier, pp. 9-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-811836-8.00002-1
    Sutton MA, Drewer J, Moring A, Adhya TK, Ahmed A, Bhatia A et al. The Indian Nitrogen Challenge in a Global Perspective. In Abrol YP, Adhya TK, Aneja VP, Raghuram N, Pathak H, Kulshrestha U, Sharma C, Singh B, editors, The Indian Nitrogen Assessment: Sources of Reactive Nitrogen, Environmental and Climate Effects, Management Options, and Policies. Elsevier. 2017. p. 9-28 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-811836-8.00002-1
    Sutton, M. A. ; Drewer, J. ; Moring, A. ; Adhya, T. K. ; Ahmed, A. ; Bhatia, A. ; Brownlie, W. ; Dragosits, U. ; Ghude, S. D. ; Hillier, J. ; Hooda, S. ; Howard, C. M. ; Jain, N. ; Kumar, Dinesh ; Kumar, R. M. ; Nayak, D. R. ; Neeraja, C. N. ; Prasanna, R. ; Price, A. ; Ramakrishnan, B. ; Reay, D. S. ; Singh, Renu ; Skiba, U. ; Smith, J. U. ; Sohi, S. ; Subrahmanyan, D. ; Surekha, K. ; van Grinsven, H. J.M. ; Vieno, M. ; Voleti, S. R. ; Pathak, H. ; Raghuram, N. / The Indian Nitrogen Challenge in a Global Perspective. The Indian Nitrogen Assessment: Sources of Reactive Nitrogen, Environmental and Climate Effects, Management Options, and Policies. editor / Yash P. Abrol ; Tapan K. Adhya ; Viney P. Aneja ; Nandula Raghuram ; Himanshu Pathak ; Umesh Kulshrestha ; Chhemendra Sharma ; Bijay Singh. Elsevier, 2017. pp. 9-28
    @inbook{20223fb38ac04d4bbd3dffa26f5c1163,
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    abstract = "Human activities have massively altered the global nitrogen (N) cycle, doubling annual production of reactive N (Nr) compounds from atmospheric dinitrogen (N2). The use of 120 Mt year-1 fertilizer N, with a global terrestrial/atmospheric N fixation of 285Mtyear-1, has provided huge benefits for global food production. However, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of the world food system is only -15{\%}. The lost Nr creates a cascade of air and water pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, until it is eventually denitrified back to N2.India clearly illustrates a dual N challenge for food and environment, consuming 17Mt of N fertilizer annually (14{\%} of the global total), which has increased since 1970 at 6{\%} year-1 approximately. Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from combustion sources are also increasing rapidly at 6.5{\%} year-1 currently. By comparison, population growth rate is lower (2{\%} year-1), while ammonia (NH3) emission increase is even less (1{\%}), pertaining to smaller changes in livestock numbers. At current rate, Indian NOx emissions will exceed NH3 emissions by 2055. India currently loses Nr worth US$10billionyear-1 as fertilizer value, while costs of Nr to health, ecosystems, and climate are estimated at US$75 (38-151) billion year-1.Only a small fraction of the Indian population consumes animal products, hence per capita Nr use and pollution is much less than in many developed countries. However, rates of meat consumption are increasing. While published projections from the UN Food and Agriculture Organization anticipate a doubling of South Asian fertilizer consumption from 2006 to 2050 (equivalent to 1.9{\%} year-1 increase), these projections lack transparency and require reevaluation. In practice, the future nitrogen cycle for India will depend on scientific advances in agronomy, genetics and environment, and the extent to which government and society grasp the emerging opportunities for optimizing N management.",
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    TY - CHAP

    T1 - The Indian Nitrogen Challenge in a Global Perspective

    AU - Sutton, M. A.

    AU - Drewer, J.

    AU - Moring, A.

    AU - Adhya, T. K.

    AU - Ahmed, A.

    AU - Bhatia, A.

    AU - Brownlie, W.

    AU - Dragosits, U.

    AU - Ghude, S. D.

    AU - Hillier, J.

    AU - Hooda, S.

    AU - Howard, C. M.

    AU - Jain, N.

    AU - Kumar, Dinesh

    AU - Kumar, R. M.

    AU - Nayak, D. R.

    AU - Neeraja, C. N.

    AU - Prasanna, R.

    AU - Price, A.

    AU - Ramakrishnan, B.

    AU - Reay, D. S.

    AU - Singh, Renu

    AU - Skiba, U.

    AU - Smith, J. U.

    AU - Sohi, S.

    AU - Subrahmanyan, D.

    AU - Surekha, K.

    AU - van Grinsven, H. J.M.

    AU - Vieno, M.

    AU - Voleti, S. R.

    AU - Pathak, H.

    AU - Raghuram, N.

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    N2 - Human activities have massively altered the global nitrogen (N) cycle, doubling annual production of reactive N (Nr) compounds from atmospheric dinitrogen (N2). The use of 120 Mt year-1 fertilizer N, with a global terrestrial/atmospheric N fixation of 285Mtyear-1, has provided huge benefits for global food production. However, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of the world food system is only -15%. The lost Nr creates a cascade of air and water pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, until it is eventually denitrified back to N2.India clearly illustrates a dual N challenge for food and environment, consuming 17Mt of N fertilizer annually (14% of the global total), which has increased since 1970 at 6% year-1 approximately. Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from combustion sources are also increasing rapidly at 6.5% year-1 currently. By comparison, population growth rate is lower (2% year-1), while ammonia (NH3) emission increase is even less (1%), pertaining to smaller changes in livestock numbers. At current rate, Indian NOx emissions will exceed NH3 emissions by 2055. India currently loses Nr worth US$10billionyear-1 as fertilizer value, while costs of Nr to health, ecosystems, and climate are estimated at US$75 (38-151) billion year-1.Only a small fraction of the Indian population consumes animal products, hence per capita Nr use and pollution is much less than in many developed countries. However, rates of meat consumption are increasing. While published projections from the UN Food and Agriculture Organization anticipate a doubling of South Asian fertilizer consumption from 2006 to 2050 (equivalent to 1.9% year-1 increase), these projections lack transparency and require reevaluation. In practice, the future nitrogen cycle for India will depend on scientific advances in agronomy, genetics and environment, and the extent to which government and society grasp the emerging opportunities for optimizing N management.

    AB - Human activities have massively altered the global nitrogen (N) cycle, doubling annual production of reactive N (Nr) compounds from atmospheric dinitrogen (N2). The use of 120 Mt year-1 fertilizer N, with a global terrestrial/atmospheric N fixation of 285Mtyear-1, has provided huge benefits for global food production. However, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of the world food system is only -15%. The lost Nr creates a cascade of air and water pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, until it is eventually denitrified back to N2.India clearly illustrates a dual N challenge for food and environment, consuming 17Mt of N fertilizer annually (14% of the global total), which has increased since 1970 at 6% year-1 approximately. Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from combustion sources are also increasing rapidly at 6.5% year-1 currently. By comparison, population growth rate is lower (2% year-1), while ammonia (NH3) emission increase is even less (1%), pertaining to smaller changes in livestock numbers. At current rate, Indian NOx emissions will exceed NH3 emissions by 2055. India currently loses Nr worth US$10billionyear-1 as fertilizer value, while costs of Nr to health, ecosystems, and climate are estimated at US$75 (38-151) billion year-1.Only a small fraction of the Indian population consumes animal products, hence per capita Nr use and pollution is much less than in many developed countries. However, rates of meat consumption are increasing. While published projections from the UN Food and Agriculture Organization anticipate a doubling of South Asian fertilizer consumption from 2006 to 2050 (equivalent to 1.9% year-1 increase), these projections lack transparency and require reevaluation. In practice, the future nitrogen cycle for India will depend on scientific advances in agronomy, genetics and environment, and the extent to which government and society grasp the emerging opportunities for optimizing N management.

    KW - Emission

    KW - Environment

    KW - Fertilizer policy

    KW - Human health

    KW - India

    KW - Nitrogen challenge

    KW - Nitrogen fixation

    KW - Nitrogen pollution

    KW - Nitrogen use efficiency

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    BT - The Indian Nitrogen Assessment

    A2 - Abrol, Yash P.

    A2 - Adhya, Tapan K.

    A2 - Aneja, Viney P.

    A2 - Raghuram, Nandula

    A2 - Pathak, Himanshu

    A2 - Kulshrestha, Umesh

    A2 - Sharma, Chhemendra

    A2 - Singh, Bijay

    PB - Elsevier

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