The keratan sulfate disaccharide Gal(6S03) ß1,4-GlcNAc(6S03) modulates interleukin 12 production by macrophages in murine Thy-1 type autoimmune disease*

Heping Xu, H. Kurihara, T. Ito, H. Kikuchi, K. Yoshida, H. Yamanokuchi, A. Asari

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    Abstract

    It has been reported that disaccharides of the glyco-saminoglycans (GAGs), heparin, or heparan sulfate suppress the production of cytokines. Therefore, we examined the effects of GAGs (keratan sulfate, hyaluronan, chondroitin, chondroitin sulfate, and heparin sulfate) disaccharides on production of interleukin (IL)-12, a pivotal cytokine in the Th-1 type immune system. Among the GAG disaccharides, only a keratan sulfate disaccharide, Gal(6SO(3))- GlcNAc(6-SO3) (L4), suppressed IL-12 production in macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharides and interferon-gamma. Neither keratan sulfate chains nor keratan sulfate tetrasaccharides elicited any change in the IL-12 production. N-Acetyl-lactosamine, Gal-GlcNAc ( LacNAc), also did not change IL-12 production. These results indicated that a certain size, i.e. disaccharide and sulfate, are essential to suppress IL-12 production. L4 was then applied to MRL-lpr/lpr mice, a Th-1 type autoimmune disease model. The treatment of MRL-lpr/lpr mice with L41) decreased in serum IL-12, 2) induced apoptosis in T cells in lymph nodes thereby suppressing lymphoaccumulation, and 3) suppressed hypergammaglobulinemia and glomerulonephritis. We showed previously that IL-12 suppresses cell death of T cells, thereby enhancing the lymphoaccumulation in MRL-lpr/lpr mice. Moreover, it has been reported that IL-12 deficiency in MRL-lpr/lpr mice diminishes lymphoaccumulation and delays glomerulonephritis. The treatment with L4 suppressed phosphoprotein kinase C and phosphoinositide 3-kinase expression in macrophages, suggesting that L4 suppresses IL-12 production by inhibiting phosphoprotein kinase C and phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathways.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)20879-20886
    Number of pages7
    JournalThe Journal of Biological Chemistry
    Volume280
    Issue number21
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - May 2005

    Keywords

    • MACULAR CORNEAL-DYSTROPHY
    • NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA
    • CYSTEINE-RICH DOMAIN
    • MRL-LPR/LPR MICE
    • MANNOSE RECEPTOR
    • T-CELLS
    • IN-VIVO
    • PROTEIN-KINASE
    • P40 HOMODIMER
    • IL-12

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