The longevity of the antimicrobial response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a peptidoglycan (PG) supplemented diet

Elisa Casadei, Steve Bird, Simon Wadsworth, Jose L González Vecino, Christopher J Secombes

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debate

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study builds upon previous work studying antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a peptidoglycan (PG) enriched diet. The aims here were 1) to evaluate how long AMP expression is elevated in skin with continuous feeding of fish with the PG enriched diet for 21 or 28 days, and 2) to assess the impact of stopping PG feeding at day 14 when sampled at day 21 or 28. The rainbow trout were divided into 6 groups, with two fed a control commercial diet for the duration of the experiment and the other four given the same diet enriched with 10 mg PG/Kg for 14 days (PG 1-14) or continuously (PG continuous), the former reverting back to the commercial diet at day 14. No mortalities occurred during the study and there were no significant differences in growth among the fish in the different diet groups.

 The expression of six AMP genes was studied by real-time PCR in the skin, since these genes were shown to be induced in response to the PG enriched diets in a previous experiment. We show that continuous PG treatment for 21 or 28 days maintained high levels of AMP expression, although in general the levels decreased with time on the diets. Withdrawal of the PG diets at day 14 resulted in a fall in expression level especially apparent with omCATH-1, omCATH-2 and omLEAP-2a, but with omDB-3 and omDB-4 remaining at elevated levels (x10) in comparison to fish given a control diet. These results confirm that orally administered PG clearly enhances the trout innate immune system and could be used as a means to boost fish defences. Future studies should be conducted to verify the impact on survival after pathogen challenge in trout fed PG enriched diets under these regimes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)316-320
Number of pages5
JournalFish & Shellfish Immunology
Volume44
Issue number1
Early online date5 Mar 2015
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2015

Fingerprint

Peptidoglycan
peptidoglycans
Nutrition
rainbow
Oncorhynchus mykiss
anti-infective agents
diet
antimicrobial peptides
peptide
Fish
Peptides
fish
skin (animal)
trout
skin
Skin
Genes
fish feeding
gene
Immune system

Keywords

  • antimicrobial peptides
  • peptidoglycan
  • rainbow trout
  • aquaculture
  • innate immunity

Cite this

The longevity of the antimicrobial response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a peptidoglycan (PG) supplemented diet. / Casadei, Elisa; Bird, Steve; Wadsworth, Simon; González Vecino, Jose L; Secombes, Christopher J.

In: Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Vol. 44, No. 1, 05.2015, p. 316-320.

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debate

@article{9eb9d1dd303c4313bfd6caac77e8814e,
title = "The longevity of the antimicrobial response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a peptidoglycan (PG) supplemented diet",
abstract = "This study builds upon previous work studying antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a peptidoglycan (PG) enriched diet. The aims here were 1) to evaluate how long AMP expression is elevated in skin with continuous feeding of fish with the PG enriched diet for 21 or 28 days, and 2) to assess the impact of stopping PG feeding at day 14 when sampled at day 21 or 28. The rainbow trout were divided into 6 groups, with two fed a control commercial diet for the duration of the experiment and the other four given the same diet enriched with 10 mg PG/Kg for 14 days (PG 1-14) or continuously (PG continuous), the former reverting back to the commercial diet at day 14. No mortalities occurred during the study and there were no significant differences in growth among the fish in the different diet groups. The expression of six AMP genes was studied by real-time PCR in the skin, since these genes were shown to be induced in response to the PG enriched diets in a previous experiment. We show that continuous PG treatment for 21 or 28 days maintained high levels of AMP expression, although in general the levels decreased with time on the diets. Withdrawal of the PG diets at day 14 resulted in a fall in expression level especially apparent with omCATH-1, omCATH-2 and omLEAP-2a, but with omDB-3 and omDB-4 remaining at elevated levels (x10) in comparison to fish given a control diet. These results confirm that orally administered PG clearly enhances the trout innate immune system and could be used as a means to boost fish defences. Future studies should be conducted to verify the impact on survival after pathogen challenge in trout fed PG enriched diets under these regimes.",
keywords = "antimicrobial peptides, peptidoglycan, rainbow trout, aquaculture, innate immunity",
author = "Elisa Casadei and Steve Bird and Simon Wadsworth and {Gonz{\'a}lez Vecino}, {Jose L} and Secombes, {Christopher J}",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Acknowledgements The research was supported financially by an industrial studentship between the University of Aberdeen, Ewos Innovation and MSD Animal Health.",
year = "2015",
month = "5",
doi = "10.1016/j.fsi.2015.02.039",
language = "English",
volume = "44",
pages = "316--320",
journal = "Fish & Shellfish Immunology",
issn = "1050-4648",
publisher = "ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The longevity of the antimicrobial response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a peptidoglycan (PG) supplemented diet

AU - Casadei, Elisa

AU - Bird, Steve

AU - Wadsworth, Simon

AU - González Vecino, Jose L

AU - Secombes, Christopher J

N1 - Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Acknowledgements The research was supported financially by an industrial studentship between the University of Aberdeen, Ewos Innovation and MSD Animal Health.

PY - 2015/5

Y1 - 2015/5

N2 - This study builds upon previous work studying antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a peptidoglycan (PG) enriched diet. The aims here were 1) to evaluate how long AMP expression is elevated in skin with continuous feeding of fish with the PG enriched diet for 21 or 28 days, and 2) to assess the impact of stopping PG feeding at day 14 when sampled at day 21 or 28. The rainbow trout were divided into 6 groups, with two fed a control commercial diet for the duration of the experiment and the other four given the same diet enriched with 10 mg PG/Kg for 14 days (PG 1-14) or continuously (PG continuous), the former reverting back to the commercial diet at day 14. No mortalities occurred during the study and there were no significant differences in growth among the fish in the different diet groups. The expression of six AMP genes was studied by real-time PCR in the skin, since these genes were shown to be induced in response to the PG enriched diets in a previous experiment. We show that continuous PG treatment for 21 or 28 days maintained high levels of AMP expression, although in general the levels decreased with time on the diets. Withdrawal of the PG diets at day 14 resulted in a fall in expression level especially apparent with omCATH-1, omCATH-2 and omLEAP-2a, but with omDB-3 and omDB-4 remaining at elevated levels (x10) in comparison to fish given a control diet. These results confirm that orally administered PG clearly enhances the trout innate immune system and could be used as a means to boost fish defences. Future studies should be conducted to verify the impact on survival after pathogen challenge in trout fed PG enriched diets under these regimes.

AB - This study builds upon previous work studying antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a peptidoglycan (PG) enriched diet. The aims here were 1) to evaluate how long AMP expression is elevated in skin with continuous feeding of fish with the PG enriched diet for 21 or 28 days, and 2) to assess the impact of stopping PG feeding at day 14 when sampled at day 21 or 28. The rainbow trout were divided into 6 groups, with two fed a control commercial diet for the duration of the experiment and the other four given the same diet enriched with 10 mg PG/Kg for 14 days (PG 1-14) or continuously (PG continuous), the former reverting back to the commercial diet at day 14. No mortalities occurred during the study and there were no significant differences in growth among the fish in the different diet groups. The expression of six AMP genes was studied by real-time PCR in the skin, since these genes were shown to be induced in response to the PG enriched diets in a previous experiment. We show that continuous PG treatment for 21 or 28 days maintained high levels of AMP expression, although in general the levels decreased with time on the diets. Withdrawal of the PG diets at day 14 resulted in a fall in expression level especially apparent with omCATH-1, omCATH-2 and omLEAP-2a, but with omDB-3 and omDB-4 remaining at elevated levels (x10) in comparison to fish given a control diet. These results confirm that orally administered PG clearly enhances the trout innate immune system and could be used as a means to boost fish defences. Future studies should be conducted to verify the impact on survival after pathogen challenge in trout fed PG enriched diets under these regimes.

KW - antimicrobial peptides

KW - peptidoglycan

KW - rainbow trout

KW - aquaculture

KW - innate immunity

U2 - 10.1016/j.fsi.2015.02.039

DO - 10.1016/j.fsi.2015.02.039

M3 - Comment/debate

VL - 44

SP - 316

EP - 320

JO - Fish & Shellfish Immunology

JF - Fish & Shellfish Immunology

SN - 1050-4648

IS - 1

ER -