Valosin-containing protein/p97 is an ATP-driven protein segregase that cooperates with distinct protein cofactors to control various aspects of cellular homeostasis. Mutations at the interface between the regulatory N-domain and the first of two ATPase domains (D1 and D2) deregulate the ATPase activity and cause a multisystem degenerative disorder, inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Intriguingly, the mutations affect only a subset of p97-mediated pathways correlating with unbalanced cofactor interactions and most prominently compromised binding of the ubiquitin regulatory X domain-containing protein 1 (UBXD1) cofactor during endolysosomal sorting of caveolin-1. However, how the mutations impinge on the p97-cofactor interplay is unclear so far. In cell-based endosomal localization studies, we identified a critical role of the N-terminal region of UBXD1 (UBXD1-N). Biophysical studies using NMR and CD spectroscopy revealed that UBXD1-N can be classified as intrinsically disordered. NMR titration experiments confirmed a valosin-containing protein/p97 interaction motif and identified a second binding site at helices 1 and 2 of UBXD1-N as binding interfaces for p97. In reverse titration experiments, we identified two distant epitopes on the p97 N-domain that include disease-associated residues and an additional interaction between UBXD1-N and the D1D2 barrel of p97 that was confirmed by fluorescence anisotropy. Functionally, binding of UBXD1-N to p97 led to a reduction of ATPase activity and partial protection from proteolysis. These findings indicate that UBXD1-N intercalates into the p97-ND1 interface, thereby modulating interdomain communication of p97 domains and its activity with relevance for disease pathogenesis. We propose that the polyvalent binding mode characterized for UBXD1-N is a more general principle that defines a subset of p97 cofactors.
- nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
- protein structure
- protein-protein interaction