The pharmacokinetics of intravenous ketorolac in children aged 2 months to 16 years: A population analysis

James S McLay, Thomas Engelhardt, Baba S Mohammed, Gary Cameron, Mindy N Cohen, Jeffrey L Galinkin, Uwe Christians, Michael J Avram, Thomas K Henthorn, Richard M Dsida, Brian J Anderson

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3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Intravenous ketorolac is commonly administered to children for the control of postoperative pain. An effect site EC50 for analgesia of 0.37 mg. L-1 is described in adults.

AIMS: The aim of this study was to review age- and weight-related effects on ketorolac pharmacokinetic parameters in children and current dosing schedules.

METHODS: Pooled intravenous ketorolac (0.5 mg. kg-1 ) concentration-time data in children aged 2 months to 16 years were analyzed using nonlinear mixed-effects models. Allometry was used to scale to a 70 kg person.

RESULTS: There were 64 children aged 2 months to 16 years (641 plasma concentrations) available for analysis. A two-compartment mammillary model was used to describe pharmacokinetics. Clearance was 2.53 (CV 45.9%) L. h-1. 70 kg-1 and intercompartment clearance was 4.43 (CV 95.6%) L. h-1. 70 kg-1 . Both central (V1) and peripheral (V2) volumes of distribution decreased with age over the first few years of postnatal life to reach V1 6.89 (CV 30.3%) L. 70 kg-1 and V2 5.53 (CV 47.6%) L. 70 kg-1 .

CONCLUSION: Clearance, expressed as L. h-1. kg-1 , decreased with age from infancy. A dosing regimen of 0.5 mg. kg-1 every 6 hours maintains a trough concentration larger than 0.37 mg. L-1 in children 9 months to 16 years of age. This dosing regimen is consistent with current recommendations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)80-86
Number of pages7
JournalPediatric Anesthesia
Volume28
Issue number2
Early online date21 Dec 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Feb 2018

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Keywords

  • Journal Article
  • analgesia
  • child
  • ketorolac
  • nonlinear mixed-effects modellingnonlinear mixed-effects modellingnonlinear mixed-effects modellingnonlinear mixed-effects modellingnonlinear mixed-effects modellingnonlinear mixed-effects modelling
  • pharmacokinetics

Cite this

McLay, J. S., Engelhardt, T., Mohammed, B. S., Cameron, G., Cohen, M. N., Galinkin, J. L., ... Anderson, B. J. (2018). The pharmacokinetics of intravenous ketorolac in children aged 2 months to 16 years: A population analysis. Pediatric Anesthesia, 28(2), 80-86. https://doi.org/10.1111/pan.13302