The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS): Construct validity, measurement properties and normative data in a large non-clinical sample

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1172 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives. To evaluate the reliability and validity of the PANAS (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988b) and provide normative data.

Design. Cross-sectional and correlational.

Method. The PANAS was administered to a non-clinical sample, broadly representative of the general adult UK population (N = 1,003). Competing models of the latent structure of the PANAS were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Regression and correlational analysis were used to determine the influence of demographic variables on PANAS scores as well as the relationship between the PANAS with measures of depression and anxiety (the HADS and the DASS).

Results. The best-fitting model (robust comparative fit index = .94) of the latent structure of the PANAS consisted of two correlated factors corresponding to the PA and NA scales, and permitted correlated error between items drawn from the same mood subcategories (Zevon & Tellegen, 1982). Demographic variables had only very modest influences on PANAS scores and the PANAS exhibited measurement invariance across demographic subgroups. The reliability of the PANAS was high, and the pattern of relationships between the PANAS and the DASS and HADS were consistent with tripartite theory.

Conclusion. The PANAS is a reliable and valid measure of the constructs it was intended to assess, although the hypothesis of complete independence between PA and NA must be rejected. The utility of this measure is enhanced by the provision of large-scale normative data.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)245-265
Number of pages20
JournalBritish Journal of Clinical Psychology
Volume43
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2004

Keywords

  • CONFIRMATORY FACTOR-ANALYSIS
  • UNIVERSITY-STUDENTS
  • FACTORIAL VALIDITY
  • TRIPARTITE MODEL
  • LATENT STRUCTURE
  • DEPRESSION
  • ANXIETY
  • SCALE
  • BIPOLARITY
  • VALIDATION

Cite this

@article{1463b4d2cea6489aac1e1a2b6d9f03c1,
title = "The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS): Construct validity, measurement properties and normative data in a large non-clinical sample",
abstract = "Objectives. To evaluate the reliability and validity of the PANAS (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988b) and provide normative data.Design. Cross-sectional and correlational.Method. The PANAS was administered to a non-clinical sample, broadly representative of the general adult UK population (N = 1,003). Competing models of the latent structure of the PANAS were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Regression and correlational analysis were used to determine the influence of demographic variables on PANAS scores as well as the relationship between the PANAS with measures of depression and anxiety (the HADS and the DASS).Results. The best-fitting model (robust comparative fit index = .94) of the latent structure of the PANAS consisted of two correlated factors corresponding to the PA and NA scales, and permitted correlated error between items drawn from the same mood subcategories (Zevon & Tellegen, 1982). Demographic variables had only very modest influences on PANAS scores and the PANAS exhibited measurement invariance across demographic subgroups. The reliability of the PANAS was high, and the pattern of relationships between the PANAS and the DASS and HADS were consistent with tripartite theory.Conclusion. The PANAS is a reliable and valid measure of the constructs it was intended to assess, although the hypothesis of complete independence between PA and NA must be rejected. The utility of this measure is enhanced by the provision of large-scale normative data.",
keywords = "CONFIRMATORY FACTOR-ANALYSIS, UNIVERSITY-STUDENTS, FACTORIAL VALIDITY, TRIPARTITE MODEL, LATENT STRUCTURE, DEPRESSION, ANXIETY, SCALE, BIPOLARITY, VALIDATION",
author = "Crawford, {John Robertson} and Henry, {J. D.}",
year = "2004",
doi = "10.1348/0144665031752934",
language = "English",
volume = "43",
pages = "245--265",
journal = "British Journal of Clinical Psychology",
issn = "0144-6657",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS): Construct validity, measurement properties and normative data in a large non-clinical sample

AU - Crawford, John Robertson

AU - Henry, J. D.

PY - 2004

Y1 - 2004

N2 - Objectives. To evaluate the reliability and validity of the PANAS (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988b) and provide normative data.Design. Cross-sectional and correlational.Method. The PANAS was administered to a non-clinical sample, broadly representative of the general adult UK population (N = 1,003). Competing models of the latent structure of the PANAS were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Regression and correlational analysis were used to determine the influence of demographic variables on PANAS scores as well as the relationship between the PANAS with measures of depression and anxiety (the HADS and the DASS).Results. The best-fitting model (robust comparative fit index = .94) of the latent structure of the PANAS consisted of two correlated factors corresponding to the PA and NA scales, and permitted correlated error between items drawn from the same mood subcategories (Zevon & Tellegen, 1982). Demographic variables had only very modest influences on PANAS scores and the PANAS exhibited measurement invariance across demographic subgroups. The reliability of the PANAS was high, and the pattern of relationships between the PANAS and the DASS and HADS were consistent with tripartite theory.Conclusion. The PANAS is a reliable and valid measure of the constructs it was intended to assess, although the hypothesis of complete independence between PA and NA must be rejected. The utility of this measure is enhanced by the provision of large-scale normative data.

AB - Objectives. To evaluate the reliability and validity of the PANAS (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988b) and provide normative data.Design. Cross-sectional and correlational.Method. The PANAS was administered to a non-clinical sample, broadly representative of the general adult UK population (N = 1,003). Competing models of the latent structure of the PANAS were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis. Regression and correlational analysis were used to determine the influence of demographic variables on PANAS scores as well as the relationship between the PANAS with measures of depression and anxiety (the HADS and the DASS).Results. The best-fitting model (robust comparative fit index = .94) of the latent structure of the PANAS consisted of two correlated factors corresponding to the PA and NA scales, and permitted correlated error between items drawn from the same mood subcategories (Zevon & Tellegen, 1982). Demographic variables had only very modest influences on PANAS scores and the PANAS exhibited measurement invariance across demographic subgroups. The reliability of the PANAS was high, and the pattern of relationships between the PANAS and the DASS and HADS were consistent with tripartite theory.Conclusion. The PANAS is a reliable and valid measure of the constructs it was intended to assess, although the hypothesis of complete independence between PA and NA must be rejected. The utility of this measure is enhanced by the provision of large-scale normative data.

KW - CONFIRMATORY FACTOR-ANALYSIS

KW - UNIVERSITY-STUDENTS

KW - FACTORIAL VALIDITY

KW - TRIPARTITE MODEL

KW - LATENT STRUCTURE

KW - DEPRESSION

KW - ANXIETY

KW - SCALE

KW - BIPOLARITY

KW - VALIDATION

U2 - 10.1348/0144665031752934

DO - 10.1348/0144665031752934

M3 - Article

VL - 43

SP - 245

EP - 265

JO - British Journal of Clinical Psychology

JF - British Journal of Clinical Psychology

SN - 0144-6657

ER -