MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small regulatory RNAs that control several cellular processes that may contribute to development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the pathophysiological consequences of myocardial infarction (MI). Only a very small-numbers of biomarkers in MI (e.g., Troponin) have been identified, which are sufficiently sensitive, specific and robust. There is growing evidence of an association between specific miRNAs in the pathogenesis of MI. miRNAs are transported within the systemic circulation via exosomes and microparticles, and are therefore detectable in blood, urine, saliva, and other fluid compartments. Dysregulation of myocardial-derived miRNAs, such as miR-1, miR-133, miR-499, and miR-208, have been identified as potential biomarkers in MI. Furthermore, alteration of the levels of some miRNAs during stress-induced apoptosis is reported as a novel therapeutic strategy for cardiac disease. Modulation of mir-24 appears to inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis, attenuate infarct size, and reduce cardiac dysfunction. A greater knowledge on the molecular mechanism underlying the functional role of emerging miRNAs, could provide novel insights into identifying of new biomarkers. This review highlights several recent preclinical and clinical studies on the role of miRNAs in myocardial infarction; novel miRNA-based therapeutic approaches for therapeutic intervention, and potential circulating miRNA to be served as biomarkers in patients with suspected MI.
- Circulating miRNAs
- Myocardial infarction