The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ): Latent structure, normative data and discrepancy analysis for proxy-ratings

John Robertson Crawford, J. D. Henry, A. L. Ward, J. Blake

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives. To evaluate the proxy-rating version of the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) and provide norms and methods for score interpretation.

Design. Cross-sectional and correlational.

Methods. The PRMQ was administered to a large sample drawn from the general adult population (N = 570). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test competing models of its latent structure. Various psychometric methods were applied to provide clinicians with tools for score interpretation.

Results. The CFA model with optimal fit specified a general memory factor together with additional prospective and retrospective factors. The reliabilities of the PRMQ were acceptable (.83 to .92), and demographic variables did not influence ratings. Tables are presented for conversion of raw scores on the Total scale and Prospective and Retrospective scales to T scores. In addition, tables are provided to allow users to assess the reliability and abnormality of differences between proxy ratings on the Prospective and Retrospective scales. Finally, tables are also provided to compare proxy-ratings with self-ratings (using data from the present sample and self-rating data from a previous study).

Conclusions. The proxy-rating version of the PRMQ provides a useful measure of everyday memory for use in clinical research and practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)83-104
Number of pages21
JournalBritish Journal of Clinical Psychology
Publication statusPublished - 2006


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