The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ): Normative data and latent structure in a large non-clinical sample

John Robertson Crawford, G. Smith, S. Della Sala, R. H. Logie, E. A. Maylor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

252 Citations (Scopus)


The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ; Smith, Della Sala, Logie, & Maylor, 2000) was developed to provide a self-report measure of prospective and retrospective memory slips in everyday life. It consists of sixteen items, eight asking about prospective memory failures, and eight concerning retrospective failures. The PRMQ was administered to a sample of the general adult population ( N = 551) ranging in age between 17 and 94. Ten competing models of the latent structure of the PRMQ were derived from theoretical and empirical sources and were tested using confirmatory factor analysis. The model with the best fit had a tripartite structure and consisted of a general memory factor (all items loaded on this factor) plus orthogonal specific factors of prospective and retrospective memory. The reliabilities (internal consistency) of the Total scale and the Prospective and Retrospective scales were acceptable: Cronbach's alpha was 0.89, 0.84, and 0.80, respectively. Age and gender did not influence PRMQ scores, thereby simplifying the presentation and interpretation of normative data. To ease interpretation of scores on the PRMQ, tables are presented for conversion of raw scores on the Total scale and Prospective and Retrospective scales to T scores (confidence limits on scores are also provided). In addition, tables are provided to allow users to assess the reliability and abnormality of differences between an individual's scores on the Prospective and Retrospective scales.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)261-275
Number of pages14
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2003



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