Fungal infections are affecting an increasing number of people, and the failure of current therapies in treating systemic infection has resulted in an unacceptably high mortality rate. It is therefore of importance that we understand immune mechanisms operating during fungal infections, in order to facilitate development of adjunctive immunotherapies for the treatment of these diseases. C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that are critical for immune responses to fungi. Many of these receptors are coupled to Syk kinase, which allows these receptors to signal via CARD9 leading to NF-¿B activation, which in turn contributes to the induction of both innate and adaptive immunity. Dectin-1, Dectin-2 and Mincle are all CLRs that share this common signalling mechanism and have been shown to play key roles in antifungal immunity. This review aims to update existing paradigms and summarise the most recent findings on these CLRs, their signal transduction mechanisms and the collaborations between these CLRs and other PRRs.
- adaptor proteins, signal transducing
- CARD signaling adaptor proteins
- intracellular signaling peptides and proteins
- lectins, C-type
- protein-tyrosine kinases
- signal transduction