The short form version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Construct validity and normative data in a large non-clinical sample

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1630 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives. To test the construct validity of the short-form version of the Depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21), and in particular, to assess whether stress as indexed by this measure is synonymous with negative affectivity (NA) or whether it represents a related, but distinct, construct. To provide normative data for the general adult population.

Design. Cross-sectional, correlational and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

Methods. The DASS-21 was administered to a non-clinical sample, broadly representative of the general adult UK population (N = 1, 794). Competing models of the latent structure of the DASS-21 were evaluated using CFA.

Results. The model with optimal fit (RCFI = 0.94) had a quadripartite structure, and consisted of a general factor of psychological distress plus orthogonal specific factors of depression, anxiety, and stress. This model was a significantly better fit than a competing model that tested the possibility that the Stress scale simply measures NA.

Conclusions. The DASS-21 subscales can validly be used to measure the dimensions of depression, anxiety, and stress. However, each of these subscales also taps a more general dimension of psychological distress or NA. The utility of the measure is enhanced by the provision of normative data based on a large sample.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)227-239
Number of pages12
JournalBritish Journal of Clinical Psychology
Volume44
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2005

Keywords

  • PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES

Cite this

@article{ede60885c44b4bdbb3f527efd9a3b941,
title = "The short form version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Construct validity and normative data in a large non-clinical sample",
abstract = "Objectives. To test the construct validity of the short-form version of the Depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21), and in particular, to assess whether stress as indexed by this measure is synonymous with negative affectivity (NA) or whether it represents a related, but distinct, construct. To provide normative data for the general adult population.Design. Cross-sectional, correlational and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).Methods. The DASS-21 was administered to a non-clinical sample, broadly representative of the general adult UK population (N = 1, 794). Competing models of the latent structure of the DASS-21 were evaluated using CFA.Results. The model with optimal fit (RCFI = 0.94) had a quadripartite structure, and consisted of a general factor of psychological distress plus orthogonal specific factors of depression, anxiety, and stress. This model was a significantly better fit than a competing model that tested the possibility that the Stress scale simply measures NA.Conclusions. The DASS-21 subscales can validly be used to measure the dimensions of depression, anxiety, and stress. However, each of these subscales also taps a more general dimension of psychological distress or NA. The utility of the measure is enhanced by the provision of normative data based on a large sample.",
keywords = "PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES",
author = "Henry, {J. D.} and Crawford, {John Robertson}",
year = "2005",
doi = "10.1348/014466505X29657",
language = "English",
volume = "44",
pages = "227--239",
journal = "British Journal of Clinical Psychology",
issn = "0144-6657",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The short form version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Construct validity and normative data in a large non-clinical sample

AU - Henry, J. D.

AU - Crawford, John Robertson

PY - 2005

Y1 - 2005

N2 - Objectives. To test the construct validity of the short-form version of the Depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21), and in particular, to assess whether stress as indexed by this measure is synonymous with negative affectivity (NA) or whether it represents a related, but distinct, construct. To provide normative data for the general adult population.Design. Cross-sectional, correlational and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).Methods. The DASS-21 was administered to a non-clinical sample, broadly representative of the general adult UK population (N = 1, 794). Competing models of the latent structure of the DASS-21 were evaluated using CFA.Results. The model with optimal fit (RCFI = 0.94) had a quadripartite structure, and consisted of a general factor of psychological distress plus orthogonal specific factors of depression, anxiety, and stress. This model was a significantly better fit than a competing model that tested the possibility that the Stress scale simply measures NA.Conclusions. The DASS-21 subscales can validly be used to measure the dimensions of depression, anxiety, and stress. However, each of these subscales also taps a more general dimension of psychological distress or NA. The utility of the measure is enhanced by the provision of normative data based on a large sample.

AB - Objectives. To test the construct validity of the short-form version of the Depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21), and in particular, to assess whether stress as indexed by this measure is synonymous with negative affectivity (NA) or whether it represents a related, but distinct, construct. To provide normative data for the general adult population.Design. Cross-sectional, correlational and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).Methods. The DASS-21 was administered to a non-clinical sample, broadly representative of the general adult UK population (N = 1, 794). Competing models of the latent structure of the DASS-21 were evaluated using CFA.Results. The model with optimal fit (RCFI = 0.94) had a quadripartite structure, and consisted of a general factor of psychological distress plus orthogonal specific factors of depression, anxiety, and stress. This model was a significantly better fit than a competing model that tested the possibility that the Stress scale simply measures NA.Conclusions. The DASS-21 subscales can validly be used to measure the dimensions of depression, anxiety, and stress. However, each of these subscales also taps a more general dimension of psychological distress or NA. The utility of the measure is enhanced by the provision of normative data based on a large sample.

KW - PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES

U2 - 10.1348/014466505X29657

DO - 10.1348/014466505X29657

M3 - Article

VL - 44

SP - 227

EP - 239

JO - British Journal of Clinical Psychology

JF - British Journal of Clinical Psychology

SN - 0144-6657

ER -