species composition, and their potential environmental drivers in the oceanic temperate NW Atlantic remain largely unknown. Consequently, we systematically surveyed seabirds and environmental conditions across this area by ship in June, 2017, then modelled the density of common species as functions of environmental covariates, validating model predictions against independent tracking data. Medium-sized petrels (99.8%), especially Great Shearwaters (Ardenna gravis, 63%), accounted for the majority of total avian biomass, which correlated at the macroscale with net primary production and peaked at the sub-polar front. At the mesoscale, the density of each species was associated with sea surface temperature, indicating zonation by water mass. Most species also
exhibited scale-dependent associations with eddies and fronts. Approximately 51, 26, 23, 7 and 1 % of the currently estimated Atlantic populations of Cory's Shearwaters (Calonectris borealis), Great Shearwaters, Sooty Shearwaters (A. grisea), Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) and Leach’s Storm-petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa) occurred in the area during our survey, many of which
were undergoing moult (a vital maintena nce activity). For some species, these estimates are higher than suggested by tracking, probably due to the presence of immatures and birds from untracked populations. Our results support the conclusion that MPA status is warranted and provide a baseline against which future changes can be assessed. Moreover, they indicate potential drivers of seabird abundance and diversity in the oceanic zone of the North Atlantic that should be investigated further.
- distance sampling
- habitat model
- mesoscale eddy
- marine protected area