The Titularization of Latvian Secondary Schools: the historical legacy of Soviet policy implementation

David J. Galbreath, Mary Elizabeth Galvin

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26 Citations (Scopus)


Few would deny that the Soviet occupation has had an effect on postrestoration policy making and implementation in Latvia. Indeed, many commentators of post-Soviet politics insist that we must come to terms with the Soviet to understand the post-Soviet. In our view, the effects of the Soviet legacy on the policy process are clearly apparent in post-restoration Latvia, specifically in the area of language education policy. This article argues that both Soviet and post-Soviet policy making and implementation can be characterized in three ways: duplicity, a Soviet ethos, and "professionalization". In what follows, we first engage with the Soviet policy process in general and the 1958-59 education reforms specifically. Based on interviews with education professionals, teachers and parents, we then analyze Latvian education laws and their implementation in 2004, highlighting the legacy of Soviet governance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)449-466
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Baltic Studies
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2005


  • education

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