The use of metformin in type 1 diabetes

S Vella, L Buetow, P L Royle, S Livingstone, H M Colhoun, J R Petrie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: As adding metformin to insulin therapy has been advocated in type 1 diabetes, we conducted a systematic review of published clinical trials and clinical trial databases to assess the effects on HbA(1c), weight, insulin-dose requirement and adverse effects. METHODS: We constructed evidence tables and fitted a fixed-effects model (inverse variance method) in order to assess heterogeneity between studies and give a crude measure of each overall treatment effect. RESULTS: Of 197 studies identified, nine involved randomisation with informed consent of patients with type 1 diabetes to metformin (vs placebo or comparator) in either a parallel or crossover design for at least 1 week. We noted marked heterogeneity in study design, drug dose, age of participants and length of follow-up. Metformin was associated with reductions in: (1) insulin-dose requirement (5.7-10.1 U/day in six of seven studies); (2) HbA(1c) (0.6-0.9% in four of seven studies); (3) weight (1.7-6.0 kg in three of six studies); and (4) total cholesterol (0.3-0.41 mmol/l in three of seven studies). Metformin was well tolerated, albeit with a trend towards increased hypoglycaemia. Formal estimates of combined effects from the five trials which reported appropriate data indicated a significant reduction in insulin dose (6.6 U/day, p <0.001) but no significant reduction in HbA(1c) (absolute reduction 0.11%, p = 0.42). No reported trials included cardiovascular outcomes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Metformin reduces insulin-dose requirement in type 1 diabetes but it is unclear whether this is sustained beyond 1 year and whether there are benefits for cardiovascular and other key clinical outcomes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)809-820
Number of pages12
JournalDiabetologia
Volume53
Issue number5
Early online date8 Jan 2010
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2010

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Metformin
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Insulin
Clinical Trials
Weights and Measures
Drug Design
Random Allocation
Informed Consent
Hypoglycemia
Cross-Over Studies
Cholesterol
Placebos
Databases
Therapeutics

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Vella, S., Buetow, L., Royle, P. L., Livingstone, S., Colhoun, H. M., & Petrie, J. R. (2010). The use of metformin in type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia, 53(5), 809-820. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-009-1636-9

The use of metformin in type 1 diabetes. / Vella, S; Buetow, L; Royle, P L; Livingstone, S; Colhoun, H M; Petrie, J R.

In: Diabetologia, Vol. 53, No. 5, 05.2010, p. 809-820.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Vella, S, Buetow, L, Royle, PL, Livingstone, S, Colhoun, HM & Petrie, JR 2010, 'The use of metformin in type 1 diabetes', Diabetologia, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 809-820. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-009-1636-9
Vella S, Buetow L, Royle PL, Livingstone S, Colhoun HM, Petrie JR. The use of metformin in type 1 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2010 May;53(5):809-820. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-009-1636-9
Vella, S ; Buetow, L ; Royle, P L ; Livingstone, S ; Colhoun, H M ; Petrie, J R. / The use of metformin in type 1 diabetes. In: Diabetologia. 2010 ; Vol. 53, No. 5. pp. 809-820.
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