The use of transcranial ultrasound and clinical assessment to diagnose ischaemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion in remote and rural areas.

Daria Antipova, Leila Eadie, Stephen Makin, Helen Shannon, Philip Wilson, Ashish MacAden

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1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Rapid endovascular thrombectomy, which can only be delivered in specialist centres, is the most effective treatment for acute ischaemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion (LVO). Pre-hospital selection of these patients is challenging, especially in remote and rural areas due to long transport times and limited access to specialist clinicians and diagnostic facilities. We investigated whether combined transcranial ultrasound and clinical assessment (“TUCA” model) could accurately triage these patients and improve access to thrombectomy. We recruited consecutive patients within 72 hours of suspected stroke, and performed non-contrast transcranial colour-coded ultrasonography within 24 hours of brain computed tomography. We retrospectively collected clinical information, and used hospital discharge diagnosis as the “gold standard”. We used binary regression for diagnosis of haemorrhagic stroke, and an ordinal regression model for acute ischaemic stroke with probable LVO, without LVO, transient ischaemic attacks (TIA) and stroke mimics. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and performed a sensitivity analysis. We recruited 107 patients with suspected stroke from July 2017 to December 2019 at two study sites: 13/107 (12%) with probable LVO, 50/107 (47%) with acute ischaemic stroke without LVO, 18/107 (17%) with haemorrhagic stroke, and 26/107 (24%) with stroke mimics or TIA. The model identified 55% of cases with probable LVO who would have correctly been selected for thrombectomy and 97% of cases who would not have required this treatment (sensitivity 55%, specificity 97%, positive and negative predictive values 75% and 93%, respectively). Diagnostic accuracy of the proposed model was superior to the clinical assessment alone. These data suggest that our model might be a useful tool to identify pre-hospital patients requiring mechanical thrombectomy, however a larger sample is required with the use of CT angiogram as a reference test
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0239653
Number of pages18
JournalPloS ONE
Volume15
Issue number10
Early online date2 Oct 2020
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2020

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