The use of triangulation for completeness purposes

Maria Fenech Adami, Alice Kiger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

59 Citations (Scopus)


Triangulation in research refers to the use of multiple techniques for gathering and/or handling data within a single study The original purpose of triangulation was to seek confirmation of apparent findings. There now appears to be support for a second purpose - completeness. This paper reviews the arguments surrounding the use of triangulation, and shows how its use facilitated one researcher's attempt to provide a complete picture of the phenomenon explored in a qualitative study of the adequacy of the nurse education system in Malta.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19-29
Number of pages11
JournalNurse Researcher
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2005


  • triangulation
  • completeness
  • confirmation
  • qualitative research
  • Malta
  • nurse education


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