The widening gap in mortality by educational level in the Russian Federation, 1980-2001

Michael Murphy, Martin Bobak, Amanda Nicholson, Charles Richard Rose, Michael Marmot

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    79 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Objectives. We examined trends in the relation between educational level and adult mortality in the Russian Federation in the period 1989 through 2001.
    Methods. We used a convenience cohort based on survey respondents' information about age, survival status, and educational level of close relatives, and applied modified indirect demographic techniques to stratify mortality rates by educational level in the study period. A random sample of 7172 respondents (response rate = 61%) provided full information on 10440 relatives.
    Results. The mortality advantage of better-educated men and women in 1980 increased substantially by 2001. In 1980, life expectancy at age 20 for university-educated men was 3 years greater than for men with elementary education only, but was 11 years greater by 2001, reflecting not only declining life expectancy in less-educated men but also an improvement among better-educated men. Similar patterns were seen in women.
    Conclusions. The well-documented mortality increases seen in Russia after 1990 have predominantly affected less-educated men and women, whereas the mortality of persons with university education has improved, resulting in a sharp increase in educational-level mortality differentials.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1293-1299
    Number of pages7
    JournalAmerican Journal of Public Health
    Volume96
    Issue number7
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Jul 2006

    Keywords

    • Generalized additive-models
    • prospective cohort
    • adult mortality
    • increase

    Cite this

    The widening gap in mortality by educational level in the Russian Federation, 1980-2001. / Murphy, Michael; Bobak, Martin; Nicholson, Amanda; Rose, Charles Richard; Marmot, Michael.

    In: American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 96, No. 7, 07.2006, p. 1293-1299.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Murphy, Michael ; Bobak, Martin ; Nicholson, Amanda ; Rose, Charles Richard ; Marmot, Michael. / The widening gap in mortality by educational level in the Russian Federation, 1980-2001. In: American Journal of Public Health. 2006 ; Vol. 96, No. 7. pp. 1293-1299.
    @article{99f395e03a14492fa30e5e9fe6161456,
    title = "The widening gap in mortality by educational level in the Russian Federation, 1980-2001",
    abstract = "Objectives. We examined trends in the relation between educational level and adult mortality in the Russian Federation in the period 1989 through 2001. Methods. We used a convenience cohort based on survey respondents' information about age, survival status, and educational level of close relatives, and applied modified indirect demographic techniques to stratify mortality rates by educational level in the study period. A random sample of 7172 respondents (response rate = 61{\%}) provided full information on 10440 relatives. Results. The mortality advantage of better-educated men and women in 1980 increased substantially by 2001. In 1980, life expectancy at age 20 for university-educated men was 3 years greater than for men with elementary education only, but was 11 years greater by 2001, reflecting not only declining life expectancy in less-educated men but also an improvement among better-educated men. Similar patterns were seen in women. Conclusions. The well-documented mortality increases seen in Russia after 1990 have predominantly affected less-educated men and women, whereas the mortality of persons with university education has improved, resulting in a sharp increase in educational-level mortality differentials.",
    keywords = "Generalized additive-models, prospective cohort, adult mortality, increase",
    author = "Michael Murphy and Martin Bobak and Amanda Nicholson and Rose, {Charles Richard} and Michael Marmot",
    year = "2006",
    month = "7",
    doi = "10.2105/AJPH.2004.056929",
    language = "English",
    volume = "96",
    pages = "1293--1299",
    journal = "American Journal of Public Health",
    issn = "0090-0036",
    publisher = "American Public Health Association Inc.",
    number = "7",

    }

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - The widening gap in mortality by educational level in the Russian Federation, 1980-2001

    AU - Murphy, Michael

    AU - Bobak, Martin

    AU - Nicholson, Amanda

    AU - Rose, Charles Richard

    AU - Marmot, Michael

    PY - 2006/7

    Y1 - 2006/7

    N2 - Objectives. We examined trends in the relation between educational level and adult mortality in the Russian Federation in the period 1989 through 2001. Methods. We used a convenience cohort based on survey respondents' information about age, survival status, and educational level of close relatives, and applied modified indirect demographic techniques to stratify mortality rates by educational level in the study period. A random sample of 7172 respondents (response rate = 61%) provided full information on 10440 relatives. Results. The mortality advantage of better-educated men and women in 1980 increased substantially by 2001. In 1980, life expectancy at age 20 for university-educated men was 3 years greater than for men with elementary education only, but was 11 years greater by 2001, reflecting not only declining life expectancy in less-educated men but also an improvement among better-educated men. Similar patterns were seen in women. Conclusions. The well-documented mortality increases seen in Russia after 1990 have predominantly affected less-educated men and women, whereas the mortality of persons with university education has improved, resulting in a sharp increase in educational-level mortality differentials.

    AB - Objectives. We examined trends in the relation between educational level and adult mortality in the Russian Federation in the period 1989 through 2001. Methods. We used a convenience cohort based on survey respondents' information about age, survival status, and educational level of close relatives, and applied modified indirect demographic techniques to stratify mortality rates by educational level in the study period. A random sample of 7172 respondents (response rate = 61%) provided full information on 10440 relatives. Results. The mortality advantage of better-educated men and women in 1980 increased substantially by 2001. In 1980, life expectancy at age 20 for university-educated men was 3 years greater than for men with elementary education only, but was 11 years greater by 2001, reflecting not only declining life expectancy in less-educated men but also an improvement among better-educated men. Similar patterns were seen in women. Conclusions. The well-documented mortality increases seen in Russia after 1990 have predominantly affected less-educated men and women, whereas the mortality of persons with university education has improved, resulting in a sharp increase in educational-level mortality differentials.

    KW - Generalized additive-models

    KW - prospective cohort

    KW - adult mortality

    KW - increase

    U2 - 10.2105/AJPH.2004.056929

    DO - 10.2105/AJPH.2004.056929

    M3 - Article

    VL - 96

    SP - 1293

    EP - 1299

    JO - American Journal of Public Health

    JF - American Journal of Public Health

    SN - 0090-0036

    IS - 7

    ER -