Thermochronology of mineral grains in the Red and Mekong Rivers, Vietnam: Provenance and exhumation implications for Southeast Asia

Peter D. Clift, Andrew Carter, Ian H. Campbell, Malcolm S. Pringle, Nguyen Van Lap, Charlotte M. Allen, Kip V. Hodges, Mai Thanh Tan

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature review

65 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

[1] Sand samples from the mouths of the Red and Mekong Rivers were analyzed to determine the provenance and exhumation history of their source regions. U-Pb dating of detrital zircon grains shows that the main sources comprise crust formed within the Yangtze Craton and during the Triassic Indosinian Orogeny. Indosinian grains in the Mekong are younger ( 210 - 240 Ma) than those in the Red River ( 230 290 Ma), suggesting preferential erosion of the Qiangtang Block of Tibet into the Mekong. The Red River has a higher proportion of 700 - 800 Ma grains originally derived from the Yangtze Craton. Ar-40/Ar-39 dating of muscovite grains demonstrates that rocks cooled during the Indosinian Orogeny are dominant in both rivers, although the Mekong also shows a grain population cooling at 150 - 200 Ma that is not seen in the Red River and which is probably of original Qiangtang Block origin. Conversely, the Red River contains a significant mica population ( 350 - 500 Ma) eroded from the Yangtze Craton. High-grade metamorphic rocks exposed in the Cenozoic shear zones of southeast Tibet-Yunnan are minority sources to the rivers. However, apatite and zircon fission track ages show evidence for the dominant sources, especially in the Red River, only being exhumed through the shallowest 5 - 3 km of the crust since similar to 25 Ma. The thermochronology data are consistent with erosion of recycled sediment from the inverted Simao and Chuxiong Basins, from gorges that incise the eastern flank of the plateau. Average Neogene exhumation rates are 104 - 191 m/Myr in the Red River basin, which is within error of the 178 +/- 35 m/Myr estimated from Pleistocene sediment volumes. Sparse fission track data from the Mekong River support the Ar-Ar and U-Pb ages in favoring tectonically driven rock uplift and gorge incision as the dominant control on erosion, with precipitation being an important secondary influence.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages28
JournalGeochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems
Volume7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006

Keywords

  • erosion
  • Tibet
  • geochemistry
  • thermochronology
  • provenance
  • geochronology : geomorphological geochronology
  • tectonophysics : tectonics and landscape evolution
  • geographic location : Asia
  • POSITIONING SYSTEM MEASUREMENTS
  • EASTERN TIBETAN PLATEAU
  • SR ISOTOPIC EVIDENCE
  • SHEAR ZONE
  • U-PB
  • TECTONIC EVOLUTION
  • FISSION-TRACK
  • ZIRCON AGES
  • INDO-CHINA
  • SE ASIA

Cite this

Thermochronology of mineral grains in the Red and Mekong Rivers, Vietnam: Provenance and exhumation implications for Southeast Asia. / Clift, Peter D.; Carter, Andrew; Campbell, Ian H.; Pringle, Malcolm S.; Van Lap, Nguyen; Allen, Charlotte M.; Hodges, Kip V.; Tan, Mai Thanh.

In: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems , Vol. 7, 2006.

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature review

Clift, Peter D. ; Carter, Andrew ; Campbell, Ian H. ; Pringle, Malcolm S. ; Van Lap, Nguyen ; Allen, Charlotte M. ; Hodges, Kip V. ; Tan, Mai Thanh. / Thermochronology of mineral grains in the Red and Mekong Rivers, Vietnam: Provenance and exhumation implications for Southeast Asia. In: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems . 2006 ; Vol. 7.
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abstract = "[1] Sand samples from the mouths of the Red and Mekong Rivers were analyzed to determine the provenance and exhumation history of their source regions. U-Pb dating of detrital zircon grains shows that the main sources comprise crust formed within the Yangtze Craton and during the Triassic Indosinian Orogeny. Indosinian grains in the Mekong are younger ( 210 - 240 Ma) than those in the Red River ( 230 290 Ma), suggesting preferential erosion of the Qiangtang Block of Tibet into the Mekong. The Red River has a higher proportion of 700 - 800 Ma grains originally derived from the Yangtze Craton. Ar-40/Ar-39 dating of muscovite grains demonstrates that rocks cooled during the Indosinian Orogeny are dominant in both rivers, although the Mekong also shows a grain population cooling at 150 - 200 Ma that is not seen in the Red River and which is probably of original Qiangtang Block origin. Conversely, the Red River contains a significant mica population ( 350 - 500 Ma) eroded from the Yangtze Craton. High-grade metamorphic rocks exposed in the Cenozoic shear zones of southeast Tibet-Yunnan are minority sources to the rivers. However, apatite and zircon fission track ages show evidence for the dominant sources, especially in the Red River, only being exhumed through the shallowest 5 - 3 km of the crust since similar to 25 Ma. The thermochronology data are consistent with erosion of recycled sediment from the inverted Simao and Chuxiong Basins, from gorges that incise the eastern flank of the plateau. Average Neogene exhumation rates are 104 - 191 m/Myr in the Red River basin, which is within error of the 178 +/- 35 m/Myr estimated from Pleistocene sediment volumes. Sparse fission track data from the Mekong River support the Ar-Ar and U-Pb ages in favoring tectonically driven rock uplift and gorge incision as the dominant control on erosion, with precipitation being an important secondary influence.",
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AU - Clift, Peter D.

AU - Carter, Andrew

AU - Campbell, Ian H.

AU - Pringle, Malcolm S.

AU - Van Lap, Nguyen

AU - Allen, Charlotte M.

AU - Hodges, Kip V.

AU - Tan, Mai Thanh

PY - 2006

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N2 - [1] Sand samples from the mouths of the Red and Mekong Rivers were analyzed to determine the provenance and exhumation history of their source regions. U-Pb dating of detrital zircon grains shows that the main sources comprise crust formed within the Yangtze Craton and during the Triassic Indosinian Orogeny. Indosinian grains in the Mekong are younger ( 210 - 240 Ma) than those in the Red River ( 230 290 Ma), suggesting preferential erosion of the Qiangtang Block of Tibet into the Mekong. The Red River has a higher proportion of 700 - 800 Ma grains originally derived from the Yangtze Craton. Ar-40/Ar-39 dating of muscovite grains demonstrates that rocks cooled during the Indosinian Orogeny are dominant in both rivers, although the Mekong also shows a grain population cooling at 150 - 200 Ma that is not seen in the Red River and which is probably of original Qiangtang Block origin. Conversely, the Red River contains a significant mica population ( 350 - 500 Ma) eroded from the Yangtze Craton. High-grade metamorphic rocks exposed in the Cenozoic shear zones of southeast Tibet-Yunnan are minority sources to the rivers. However, apatite and zircon fission track ages show evidence for the dominant sources, especially in the Red River, only being exhumed through the shallowest 5 - 3 km of the crust since similar to 25 Ma. The thermochronology data are consistent with erosion of recycled sediment from the inverted Simao and Chuxiong Basins, from gorges that incise the eastern flank of the plateau. Average Neogene exhumation rates are 104 - 191 m/Myr in the Red River basin, which is within error of the 178 +/- 35 m/Myr estimated from Pleistocene sediment volumes. Sparse fission track data from the Mekong River support the Ar-Ar and U-Pb ages in favoring tectonically driven rock uplift and gorge incision as the dominant control on erosion, with precipitation being an important secondary influence.

AB - [1] Sand samples from the mouths of the Red and Mekong Rivers were analyzed to determine the provenance and exhumation history of their source regions. U-Pb dating of detrital zircon grains shows that the main sources comprise crust formed within the Yangtze Craton and during the Triassic Indosinian Orogeny. Indosinian grains in the Mekong are younger ( 210 - 240 Ma) than those in the Red River ( 230 290 Ma), suggesting preferential erosion of the Qiangtang Block of Tibet into the Mekong. The Red River has a higher proportion of 700 - 800 Ma grains originally derived from the Yangtze Craton. Ar-40/Ar-39 dating of muscovite grains demonstrates that rocks cooled during the Indosinian Orogeny are dominant in both rivers, although the Mekong also shows a grain population cooling at 150 - 200 Ma that is not seen in the Red River and which is probably of original Qiangtang Block origin. Conversely, the Red River contains a significant mica population ( 350 - 500 Ma) eroded from the Yangtze Craton. High-grade metamorphic rocks exposed in the Cenozoic shear zones of southeast Tibet-Yunnan are minority sources to the rivers. However, apatite and zircon fission track ages show evidence for the dominant sources, especially in the Red River, only being exhumed through the shallowest 5 - 3 km of the crust since similar to 25 Ma. The thermochronology data are consistent with erosion of recycled sediment from the inverted Simao and Chuxiong Basins, from gorges that incise the eastern flank of the plateau. Average Neogene exhumation rates are 104 - 191 m/Myr in the Red River basin, which is within error of the 178 +/- 35 m/Myr estimated from Pleistocene sediment volumes. Sparse fission track data from the Mekong River support the Ar-Ar and U-Pb ages in favoring tectonically driven rock uplift and gorge incision as the dominant control on erosion, with precipitation being an important secondary influence.

KW - erosion

KW - Tibet

KW - geochemistry

KW - thermochronology

KW - provenance

KW - geochronology : geomorphological geochronology

KW - tectonophysics : tectonics and landscape evolution

KW - geographic location : Asia

KW - POSITIONING SYSTEM MEASUREMENTS

KW - EASTERN TIBETAN PLATEAU

KW - SR ISOTOPIC EVIDENCE

KW - SHEAR ZONE

KW - U-PB

KW - TECTONIC EVOLUTION

KW - FISSION-TRACK

KW - ZIRCON AGES

KW - INDO-CHINA

KW - SE ASIA

U2 - 10.1029/2006GC001336

DO - 10.1029/2006GC001336

M3 - Literature review

VL - 7

JO - Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems

JF - Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems

SN - 1525-2027

ER -